Maternal Healthcare Services and the Health Workers among the Migrant Slum Dwellers of Bangalore City, Karnataka, India

Suchismita Mishra(1*), T. Rajendra Prasad(2)

(1) Department of Economics, Bangalore University, Bengaluru, India,; Department of Biostatistics, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, India
(2) Department of Biostatistics, National Institute of Mental Health and and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, India
(*) Corresponding Author


The health workers play a variety of roles which include provision of outreach, information, referral, advocacy and other support to promote health and help people meet their healthcare. The poor migrants usually settle in unauthorized slums or settlements. The migrant health is found in a disadvantageous position due to poor access to healthcare services. The present paper examines the maternal healthcare services provided by the peripheral health workers among the interstate migrants living in slums of Bangalore city. After conducting a pilot survey, five slums (migrant camps/non-notified slums) were identified based on the criteria of 1) inter- state migration 2) year of migration <7 years 3) having more than 100 households. Mothers with a child below 2 years (n=100) were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected from the mothers, key informants and healthcare workers through in- depth interviews. The maternal healthcare services by the health workers are not able to reach the migrant population due to migrants’ location of staying and many women went back to their native place for child delivery. The migrants who moved for delivery to their native place (32.4%) accessed the services of the health workers better than the respondents who stayed in the Bangalore city (13.5%). Similar situation was found for the visit of the heath workers for post-natal care. Some institutional lacuna like lack of space, toilets, water and also the shortage of staff etc. were pointed out by the health workers, which are required. The study warrants the need to understand the realities and healthcare needs of the migrant population. A better mechanism should be developed to improve the services of peripheral health workers in delivering primary healthcare services like maternal health care.


internal migration; maternal healthcare; health workers; primary healthcare

Full Text:



Anand, S. and Bärnighausen, T. 2004. Human Resources and Health Outcomes: Cross- country Econometric Study. Lancet, 364, 1603–09.

Arends-Kuenning, M. 1997. The equity and efficiency of door step delivery of contraceptives in Bangladesh. Research division working paper no. 101. New York: Population Council.

Babu, B.V., Swain, B.K., Mishra, S. and Kar, S.K. 2010. Primary Healthcare Services among a Migrant Indigenous Population Living in an Eastern Indian City. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 12, 53–59.

Black, R.E., Taylor, C.E., Arole, S., Bang, A., Bhutta, Z.A. et al. 2017. Comprehensive review of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care in improving maternal, neonatal and child health: 8. Summary and recommendations of the expert panel.

J Glob Health, 7(1), 010908. Burki, T. 2016. Conflict in Afghanistan takes an increasing toll on civilians. Lancet, 388 (10040), 117–8.

Friberg, I.K., Bhutta, Z.A., Darmstadt, G.L., et al. 2010. Comparing modelled predictions of neonatal mortality impacts using List with observed results of community-based intervention trials in South Asia. Int J Epidemiol, 39(Suppl 1), i11–20.

Gardner, R. and Blackburn, R. 1996. People Who Move: New Reproductive Health Focus. Population Reports, XXIV (3).

Gopalan, S.S., Das, A. and Howard, N. 2017. Maternal and neonatal service usage and determinants in fragile and conflict-affected situations: a systematic review of Asia and the middle-east. BMC Women’s Health, 17(1), 20.

Government of India, 1992. National Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme: Plan to implement MCH Services. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India: New Delhi.

Kapil, U. and Choudhury, P. 2005. National Rural Health Mission (NRHM): Will It Make a Difference? Indian Pediatrics, 42, 783. Karim, A.M., Admassu, K. and Schellenberg, J. 2013. Effect of Ethiopia’s health extension program on maternal and newborn health care practices in 101 rural districts: A dose- response study. PLoS One, 8(6), e65160.

Kumar, R, Singh, M.M., Kaur, A., Kaur, M. 1995. Reproductive health behaviour of rural women. J Indian Med Assoc, 93, 129- 31.

Kusuma, Y.S., Kumari, R. and Kaushal, S. 2013. Migration and Access to Maternal Healthcare: Determinants of Adequate Antenatal Care and Institutional Delivery among Socio‐Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in Delhi, India. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 18(10), 1202‐1210.

Kusuma, Y.S., Kumari, R., Chandrakant, S.P. and Gupta, SK. 2010. Migration and Immunization: Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Migrants in Delhi, India. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 15(11), 1326‐1332.

Kusuma, Y.S., Kumari. R, Pandav. C.S. and Gupta, S.K. 2010. Migration and immunization: determinants of childhood immunization uptake among socioeconomically disadvantaged migrants in Delhi, India. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 1:15 (11), 1326 -32.

Lassi, Z.S. and Bhutta, Z.A. 2015. Community- based intervention packages for reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and improving neonatal outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 3:CD007754.

Mishra, S. Yadlapalli, K. and Babu, B.V. 2015. Migration and health-care access: Barriers to access government health services by migrant tribal community living in an eastern Indian city. International journal of medical science and public health, 4(1), 181-188.

Namazzi, G., Waiswa, P., Nakakeeto, M., Nakibuuka, V. K., Namutamba, S., Najjemba, M., and Peterson, S. 2015. Strengthening Health Facilities for Maternal and Newborn Care: Experiences from Rural Eastern Uganda. Global health action, 8.

Navaneetham, K. and Dramalingam, A. 2002. Utilization of maternal healthcare services in Southern India. Social Science & Medicine, 55(10):1849-1869.

Pandve, H.T. and Pandve, T.K. 2013. Primary Healthcare System in India: Evolution and Challenges. Int J Health Syst Disaster Manage, 1(3), 125‐128.

Pfaffmann, Z. J., Rasanathan, K. and Hipgrave D.2017. Community healthsystems: allowing community health workers to emerge from the shadows. Lancet Glob Health, 5(9), e866–e7.

Planning Commission, Government of India, 2008. Eleventh Five Year Plan: 2007-12: Social Sector (Volume II). Oxford University Press, New Delhi.

Rao, S., Joshi, S.B., Kelkar, R.S. 2000. Changes in nutritional status and morbidity over time among pre-school children from slums in Pune, India. Indian J Pediatr, 37(10),1060-71.

Singh, P.K., Rai, R.K. and Singh, L. 2012. Examining the Effect of Household Wealth and Migration Status on Safe Delivery Care in Urban India, 1992-2006. PLoS One, 7: e44901.

Swain BK, Mishra S. 2006. Immunization Coverage among Migrant Tribal Children in Slums of Orissa. Indian Pediatr. 43(11), 1011‐1013.

UNICEF, Women UN, 2015. Addressing Inequalities: Synthesis Report of Global Public Consultation. Global Thematic Consultation on the Post - 2015 Development Agenda, The World We Want 2015. 2013 Jun.

USAID, 2016. The Health Communication Capacity Collaborative (HC3). (2016) Factors Impacting the Effectiveness of Health Care Worker Behavior Change: A Literature Review. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs.

Usmani, G. and Ahmad, N. 2018. Health Status in India: A Study of Urban Slum and Non-slum Population. Nurs Res Pract, 2(1), 9-14. Worl Health Organization, 1994. Mother-baby package: Implementing safe motherhood in countries. Geneva.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1545 | views : 1156


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Populasi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright of Jurnal Populasi ISSN 0853-6202 (PRINT), ISSN: 2476-941X (ONLINE).

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Populasi Indexed by:


analytics View My Stats