Effect of essential oil of black cumin (Nigella sativa) on hematological profiles and total cholesterol levels of Wistar rats exposed by cigarette smoke

  • Maya Dian Rakhmawatie Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang
  • Muhammad Adzanta Al Afghani Graduated Student, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia
  • Nurkomariah Zulhijjah Graduated Student, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia
  • Andra Novitasari Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia
  • Arief Tajally Adhiatma Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia
Keywords: black cumin, Nigella sativa, cigarette smoke, total cholesterol, hematology profiles


Cigarette smoke contains toxic substances such as carbon monoxide, lead, cadmium, tar and hydrogen cyanide which can triggeroxidative stress and causeerythrocyte membrane damage and hemoglobin oxidation. In addition, it also contains nicotine which can increase the total cholesterol levels. Black cumin containing thymoquinone has been known for its antioxidant and anticholesterol activities. This study aimed to investigate the effect of black cumin extract on hematological profiles and total cholesterol levels of Wistar rats exposed by cigarette smoke. It was an experimental study with randomized posttest only control group design. Twenty Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) that divided into four groups were used in this study.The normal control group (N) was provided with standard feed,the negative control group (C) was exposed to the cigarette smoke with two pieces of cigarettes/day for 14 days, the treated groups were given black cumin extract 200mg/kg (T1) and 400mg/kg (T2) and exposed by cigarette smoke two pieces of cigarettes/day for 14 days. On day 15, blood samples from the rats were taken through the sinus orbitalis and then the erythrocyte, the hemoglobin and the total cholesterol levels were examined. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA test and continued by the post-hoc test. The results showed the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin levels of the T2 group was significantly higher than those of the C group (p<0.05). Although, total cholesterol levels of the T2 group was lower than that of other groups, however it was not significantly different (p>0.05). In conclusion, the administration of black cumin extract at 400mg/kg significantly increases the erythrocytes numbers and the hemoglobin levels in Wistar rats exposed by cigarette smoke.


World Health Organization. Tobacco [serial online]. 2015 [Cited 20 April 2016]. Available from:http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs339/en/.

Drope J, Schluger N, Cahn Z, Drope J, Hamill S, Islami F, et al. The Tobacco Atlas. Atlanta: American Cancer Society and Vital Strategies, 2018.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010.

Trotta RJ, Sullivian SG,Stem A. Lipid peroxidation and haemoglobin in red cells exposed to t-buthyl hydroperoxide. Biochem Journal 1983; 212(3):759-72.


Hegazy AA,Zaher MM, El-Hafez MAA, Saleh RA. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc, and iron among children. BMC Res Notes 2010; 3(133):1-9


Jian RB, Ducatman A. Association between smoking and lipid/lipoprotein concentrations among US adults aged ≥ 20 years. J Circ Biomark 2018; 7:1849454418779310.


Argacha JF, Adamopoulus D, Gujic M, Fontaine D, Amyai N, Berkenboom G, et al. Acute effects of passive smoking on peripheral vascular function. Hypertension 2008; 51(6):1506-11.


Ahmad A, Husain A, Mujeeb M, Khan SA, Najmi AK, Siddique NA, et al. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013; 3(5):337-52.


Junaedi E, Yulianti S, Suty S, Kuncari ES. Kedashsyatan habbatussauda mengobati berbagai penyakit. Jakarta: Agromedia Pustaka, 2011: 16-21.

Chaudhry H, Fatima M, Ahmad IZ. Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial potentials of Nigella sativa L. suspensioncultures under elicitation. Biomed Res Int 2015; 2015:708691.


Hidayati T, Habib I. Antiimmunotoxic of black cumin seed oil (Nigella sativa oil) in DMBA (Dimethylbenzantracene)-induced mice. Int J Pharm Med Biol Sci 2015; 4(3):171-4.


Kocyigit Y, Atamer Y, Uysal E. The effect of dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa L. on serum lipid profile in rats. Saudi Med J 2009; 30(7):893-6.

Wulandari, Sayono, Meikawati W. Pengaruh dosis paparan asap rokok terhadap jumlah eritrosit dan kadar hemoglobin: studi pada tikus putih jantan galur Wistar. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia 2017; 8(2):55-64.

Dollah MA, Parhizkar S, Latiff LA, Hassan MH. Toxicity effect of Nigella sativa on the liver function of rats. Adv Pharm Bull 2013; 3(1): 97-102


Asgary S, Naderi GH, Ghannady A. Effects of cigarette smoke, nicotince and cotinine on red blood cell hemolysis and their-SH capacity. Exp Clin Cardiol 2005; 10(2):116-9.

Kanias T, Acker JP. Biopreservation of red blood cells-the struggle with hemoglobin oxidation. FEBS J 2010; 277(2):343-56.


mIrene M. Pengaruh pemberian ekstrak jintan hitam (Nigella sativa) terhadap kualitas spermatozoa tikus Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) yang terpapar asap rokok. Jurnal e-Biomedik 2016; 4(1).

Staniek K,Gille L. Is thymoquinone an antioxidant?. BMC Pharmac 2010; 10(Suppl 1):A9.


Kanter M, Coskun O, Gurel A. Effect of black cumin (Nigella sativa) on cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the blood of rats. Biol Trace Elem Res 2005;107(3):277-87.


Dewanjee S, Sahu R, Karmakar S, Gangopadhyay M. Toxic effects of lead exposure in Wistar rats: involvement of oxidative stress and the beneficial role of edible jute (Corchorus olitorius) leaves. Food Chem Toxicol 2013; 55:78-91.


Mabrouk A, Cheikh HB. Thymoquinone ameliorates lead-induced suppression of the antioxidant system in rat kidneys.Libyan J Med 2016;11(1):31018.


Baskoro F. Pengaruh pemberian ekstrak Jintan Hitam (Nigella sativa) terhadap kadar hemoglobin tikus Sparague dawley setelah diberi paparan asap rokok. Jurnal Kedokteran Diponegoro 2016; 5(4):791-7.

Khairunnisa L, Ngestiningsih Dwi, Setyawati AN. Pengaruh pemberian esktrak jintan hitam (Nigella sativa) terhadap kadar kolesterol LDL serum tikus Sprague dawley setelah pemberian paparan asap rokok. Jurnal Kedokteran Diponegoro 2016; 5(4):1171-81

Asgary S, Sahebkar A, Goli-malekabadi N. Ameliorative effects of Nigella sativa on dyslipidemia. J Endocrinol Invest 2015; 38(10):1039-46.


Sahebkar A, Beccuti G, Simental-Mendia LE, Nobili V, Bo S. Nigella sativa (black seed) effects on plasma lipid concentrations in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized pacebo-controlled trials. Pharmacol Res 2016; 106:37-50.