Cover Image

RESPON SEMUT TERHADAP KERUSAKAN ANTROPOGENIK DALAM HUTAN LINDUNG SIRIMAU AMBON (Ants Response to Damage Anthropogenic in Sirimau Forest Ambon)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18739

Fransina Latumahina(1*), Musyafa Musyafa(2), Sumardi Sumardi(3), Nugroho Susetya Putra(4)

(1) Program Doktor Ilmu Kehutanan, Universitas Gajah Mada Yogyakarta, Jl. Agro No.1 Bulaksumur, Sleman Yogyakarta 55281
(2) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gajah Mada Yogyakarta, Jl. Agro No.1 Bulaksumur, Sleman Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gajah Mada Yogyakarta, Jl. Agro No.1 Bulaksumur, Sleman Yogyakarta 55281
(4) Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gajah Mada Yogyakarta. Jl. Flora Bulaksumur, Sleman Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengkaji respon semut terhadap kerusakan habitat akibat kehadiran manusia dalam hutan lindung Sirimau Ambon. Penelitian dilaksanakan dari bulan Juni 2011 hingga Juli 2012. Respon semut diketahui dengan pendekatan kekayaan, kelimpahan, keragaman, frekuensi dan tanggap fungsional terhadap kerusakan antropogenik dalam hutan lindung melalui metode line transect. Parameter tambahan yang diamati adalah faktor iklim mikro, sifat fisik dan kimia tanah. Hasil penelitian menemukan 23 spesis semut, 16601 individu, kelimpahan spesis tertinggi sebesar 0,158, frekuensi 32,44 % dan indeks keragaman sebesar 2,92 yang tergolong sedang. Kelompok fungsional semut terbagi menjadi kelompok oppurtunist (1 spesis), generalized myrmicinae (1 spesis), specialis predator (4 spesis), tropical climate specialis (6 spesis), dominant dolichoderinae (4 spesis), subordinate camponitini (6 spesis) dan criptic species (4 spesis). Faktor antropogenik yang menyebabkan kerusakan habitat hutan lindung yakni pembukaan wilayah hutan, penebangan pohon, pembakaran hutan, perladangan berpindah dan pembangunan fisik akibatnya terjadi fragmentasi dan degradasi habitat yang diikuti dengan ketidakseimbangan lingkungan dan komponen ekosistem.

ABSTRACT

This study aims to know response ants to damage due to presence of human in Sirimau forest Ambon. The research was conducted from June 2011 until July 2012. Research to obtains data about richness, abundance, diversity, frequency and functional response from ants to anthropogenic damage in Sirimau forest with line transect method. Additional parameters measured were microclimate factors, physical and chemical of soil. The study found 23 species of ants, 16.601 individuals with highest species abundance of 0.158, 32.44% frequency and diversity index of 2.92 were classified as moderate. Functionally ants found in the group classified are oppurtunist (1 species), generalized myrmicinae (1 species), specialist predators (4 species), tropical climate specialists (6 species), dominant dolichoderinae (4 species), subordinate camponitini (6 species) and criptic species (4 species). Anthropogenic factor have contribute to destruction of forest habitat through opening forests, logging, forest fires and shifting cultivation. Anthropogenic damage in secondary forest causing fragmentation and degradation, followed by imbalance of environment and ecosystem components.


Keywords


antropogenik; kerusakan habitat; komunitas semut; respon semut; anthropogenic; ant communities; ant response; habitat destruction



References

Anonim, 2009. Statistik Kehutanan Indonesia. Kementerian Kehutanan Indonesia. Jakarta, Pp 56-57.

Anonim, 2010. Ant parataxonomic Training Book Course, AneT University of Malaya, Kualalumpur. Pp 21–56.

Anonim, 2013. Statistik Kehutanan Indonesia. Kementerian Kehutanan Indonesia. Jakarta, Pp 90-97.

Agosti, D., Majer, J., Alonso, L., dan Schultz, T., 2000. Ants Standard Methods for Measuring and Monitoring Biodiversity. Smithsonian Institution Pr. Washington. Pp 11-35.

Agosti, D., dan Alonso, L., 2000. Biodiversity Studies, Moni¬toring, and Ants : An Overview. dalam Agosti, D., Majer, J., Alonso, L., dan Schultz, T., ( ed) Ants: Standard Methods for Measuring and Monitoring Biodiversity, Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington. Pp 35-48.

Andersen, A., 2000. Global Ecology of Rainforest Ants: Functional Groups in Relation to Enviromental Stress and Disturbance, dalam Agosti, D., Majer, J.,Alonso, L., dan Schultz, T (ed) Ants: Standard Methods for Measuring and Monitoring Biodiversity. Smithsonian Institution Pr. Washington. pp 55-62.

Andersen, A., Fisher, A., Hoffmann , B., Read , J., dan Richards, R., 2004. Use of Terrestrial Invertebrates for Biodiversity Monitoring in Australian Rangelands, with Particular Reference to Ants. Austral. Ecol., 29:87-89.

Barbour, B., Bilton, D., dan Laurent,M,. 1999. Number of Species Ants. Austral. Ecol., 23:90–95.

Bestelmeyer, B., dan Wiens, J., 2000. The Effects of Land Use on The Structure of Ground- Foraging Ant Communities in The Argentine Chaco. Austral. Ecol., 67:137-145.

Bilton, D., Mc Abendroth, L., Bedford, A., dan Ramsay, P., 2006. How Wide to Cast the Net? Cross-Taxon. Congruence of Species Richness, Community Similarity and Indicator Taxa in Ponds. Freshwater Biol., 51:578-590.

Bolton, B., dan Alpert, G., 2011. Barry Bolton’s Synopsis of the Formicidae and Catalogue of Ants of the World. Situs: http://gap.entclub.org/

Budhi,. 2006. Keragaman Fauna di Permukaan Tanah di Hutan Lindung Gunung Nona Ambon. Tesis. Program Pascasarjana Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Pattimura, Ambon. Pp 41-46.

Cox, C., dan Moore, D., 2000. Biogeography : an Ecological and Evolutionary Approach. 6th (ed). Blackwell Science Ltd. Sydney. Pp 187-196.

Djayadiningrat,.1990. Ekologi Vegetasi. Gilang Perkasa Yogyakarta. Pp 28 - 30

Garden, J., McAlpine, B., Possingham, C., dan Jones, N., 2007. Habitat Structure is More Important Than Vegetation Composition for Local Level Management Terrestrial Reptile and Small Mammal Species Living in Urban Remnants: A Case Study from Brisbane, Australia. Austral. Ecol., (32):669-685.

Giller, G., 2002. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function: Do Species Matter? Biology and Environment. (3):129-139.

House, A., Burwell, C., dan Brown, S., 2006. Ant Assemblage in Brigalow Regrowth Vegetation. Journal Ecol. Manage Restor. (7):136-140.

Hashimoto, Y.,Yamane, S., dan Mohamed, M., 2001. How to Design an Inventory Method for Ground Level Ants in Tropical Forests. Nature and Human Activitie. Pp 167-170.

Herwina, H., Nasir, N., Jumjunidang, M., dan Yaherwandi, M., 2013. The Composition of Ant Species on Banana Plants With Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) Symptoms in West Sumatera, Indonesia. Jurnal Asian Myrmicology, 5:151–155.

Holldobler, B., dan Wilson, E., 1990. The Ants. Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard Univ Pr. Pp 17-44.

Indriyanto, 2006. Ekologi Mahluk Hidup. Sumber Rejeki, Yogyakarta. Pp 34 -35.

Irwanto,. 2005. Ekologi Vegetasi Pulau Marsegu. Tesis. Program Pascasarjana Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta. Pp 89 -95.

Majer, J., dan Nichols, O., 1998. Long Term Recolonization Patterns of Ants in Western Australian Rehabilitated Bauxite Mines with Reference to Their Use as Indicators of Restoration Success. J. Appl. Ecol. (35):161-182.

Nakamura, A., Catterall, C., House, A., Kitching, R., dan Burwell, C., 2007. The Use of Ants and Other Soil and Litter Arthropods as Bioindicators of The Impacts of Rainforest Clearing and Subsequent Land Use. Journal Insect Conserv. 11:177-186.

Pecarevic, M., 2010. Biodiversity on Broadway - Enigmatic Diversity of the Societies of Ants (Formicidae) on The Streets of New York City. J. Appl. Ecol., 5(10):121-125.

Purwanto, I., dan Gintings, A., 2007. Penelitian Sifat-sifat Fisik dan Kimia Tanah di Bawah Tegakan Hutan Alam Duabanga moluccana di Nusa Tenggara Barat. Buletin Penelitian Hutan, 561:50-60.

Purwowidodo, 1996. Pengaruh Perubahan Suhu Udara Terhadap Pertumbuhan Vegetasi. (Tesis). Program Pascasarjana Fakultas Kehutanan IPB Bogor. Bogor. Pp 95–99.

Rizali, A., 2007. Keragaman Semut di Kepulauan Seribu, Indonesia. Tesis. Program Pascasarjana, Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor. Pp 17-34.

Sahusilawane, 2010. Keragaman Vegetasi Dalam Hutan Lindung Sirimau Ambon. Tesis. Program Pascasarjana, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Pattimura, Ambon. Pp 21-26.

Soekotjo, 1976. Silvikultur Intensif. Gajah Mada Press, Yogyakarta. Pp 67–69.

Stephens, S., dan Wagner, M., 2006. Using Ground Foraging Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Functional Groups as Bioindicators of Forest Health in Northern Arizona Ponderosa Pine Forests. Environ. Entomol. (35):937-949.

Shahabudin., 2011. Effect of Land Use Change on Ecosystem Function of Dung Beetles: Experimental Evidence From Wallacea Region in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Jurnal Biodiversitas, 3:177-181.

Shattuck, S., 2000. Australian Ants: Their Biology and Identification. Collingwood: CSIRO Sydney. Pp 197-199.

Suin, M., 1997. Ekologi Hewan Tanah, Bumi Aksara, Jakarta. Pp 17-19.

Suputa dan Hasimoto, 2010. Semut di Indonesia. UGM Press, Yogyakarta. Pp 16-67.

Talaohu, 2012. Kerusakan Hutan Lindung Sirimau dan Pengaruhunya Terhadap Fungsi Lindung Skripsi. Program Studi Kehutanan, Universitas Pattimura, Ambon. Pp 27–34.

Underwood, E., dan Fisher, B., 2006. The Role of Ants in Conservation Monitoring : if, When, and How. Biol. Conserv., 132:166-182.

Whitmore,T.,2000. The Case of Tropical Rain Forests. The Sustainable Development of Forests: Aspirations and The Reality. Naturzale, 15:13-15.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jml.18739

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 4343 | views : 4448 | views : 1337

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan



JML Indexed by:

  

Web
Analytics View My Stats