In Vitro Anti-Wrinkle and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities of Grapefruit Peel and Strawberry Extracts

Endang Lukitaningsih(1*), Syamsu Nur(2), Fadilah Qonithah(3), Andi Zulbayu(4), Rina Kuswahyuning(5), Rumiyati Rumiyati(6)

(1) Faculty of Pharmacy, University Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(2) Faculty of Pharmacy, University Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(3) Faculty of Pharmacy, University Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(4) Faculty of Pharmacy, University Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(5) Faculty of Pharmacy, University Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(6) Faculty of Pharmacy, University Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author


The research aims to analyse the antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-wrinkle activities from grapefruit (Citrus Maxima L) and strawberry extracts. Samples were extracted by maceration using 96% ethanol and ethyl acetate, subsequently. The Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) were used to measure the antioxidant activity. The effect of anti-wrinkle was determined by testing the inhibition of elastase and collagenase enzyme, while anti-tyrosinase activity was analysed using mushroom tyrosinase enzyme. The results showed that strawberry extracts in ethanolic (SE) and ethyl acetate (SEA) have antioxidant activity in FRAP (EC50 = 404.39 ± 3.27 µg / mL and 1978.65 ± 37.25 µg/mL) and BCB (IC50 = 292.30 ± 4.69 µg/mL and 671.11 ± 6.74 µg/mL). Whereas the grapefruit peel extracts both in ethanolic (GPE) and ethyl acetate (GPEA) have antioxidant activity in FRAP (EC50 219.47 ± 71.96 µg / ml and 309.44 ± 95.76 µg/ml) and BCB (EC50 245.19 ± 162.47 µg/ml and 567.54 ± 95.31 µg/ml). As positive standards for FRAP antioxidant analysis were quercetin and vitamin C which has IC50 respectively 18.97 ± 4.50 µg/mL and 24.47 ± 1.44 µg/mL. While in BCB analysis, Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) used as positive standard (IC50 38.68 ± 5.70 µg/mL). The samples of SE, SEA, GPE and GPEA showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity which the IC50 values were respectively 492.68 ± 1.43; 2658 ± 48.08; 3312.5 ± 222.74; 2985.17 ± 122.80 µg/ml. Kojic acid (IC50 111.52 ± 0.42 µg/ml) is used as positive standard in this study. In addition, SE, SEA, GPE and GPEA were able to inhibit elastase and collagenase enzymes, although their activities were still lower than the positive standard used in this study. Elastastinal in concentration 50 µg/mL giving elastase inhibition about 71.71 ± 0.81 µg/mL, while vitamin C in the same concentration showed collagenase inhibition about 66.79 ± 1.23 µg/mL. It can be concluded that the extract of strawberry and grapefruit peel has antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-wrinkle activity through inhibition of elastase and collagenase enzymes; thus, they can be used as antiaging cosmetic ingredients.


Citrus maxima L; strawberry; antioxidant; anti-wrinkle; anti-tyrosinase

Full Text:



Abirami, A., Nagarani, G. and Siddhuraju, P. (2014) ‘potential of fresh juice from Citrus hystrix and C . maxima fruits’, Food Science and Human Wellness. Beijing Academy of Food Sciences., 3(1), pp. 16–25.

Ahmad, A. et al., (2015) ‘Quantification of total phenol, flavonoid content and pharmacognostical evaluation including HPTLC fingerprinting for the standardization of Piper nigrum Linn fruits’, Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. Hainan Medical University, 5(2), pp. 101–107.

Ben Ahmed, Z. et al., (2016) ‘Determination of optimal extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from: Pistacia atlantica leaves using the response surface methodology’, Analytical Methods, 8(31), pp. 6107–6114.

Allen, D. and Tracy, P. (1995) ‘No Title’, Journal oh Biological Chemistry, 270(3), pp. 1408–1415.

Apak, R. et al., (2007) ‘Comparative evaluation of various total antioxidant capacity assays applied to phenolic compounds with the CUPRAC assay’, Molecules, pp. 1496–1547.

Apraj, V. D. and Pandita, N. S. (2016) ‘Evaluation of skin anti-aging potential of Citrus reticulata blanco peel’, Pharmacognosy Research, 8(3), pp. 160–168.

Aumeeruddy-Elalfi, Z., Gurib-Fakim, A. and Mahomoodally, M. F. (2016) ‘Kinetic studies of tyrosinase inhibitory activity of 19 essential oils extracted from endemic and exotic medicinal plants’, South African Journal of Botany, 103, pp. 89–94.

Azzini, E. et al., (2010) ‘Bioavailability of strawberry antioxidants in human subjects’, British Journal of Nutrition, 104(8), pp. 1165–1173.

Baba, S. A. and Malik, S. A. (2015) ‘Determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content , antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of a root extract of Arisaema jacquemontii Blume’, Integrative Medicine Research. Taibah University, 9(4), pp. 449–454.

Badriyah and Hastuti, U. S. (2017) ‘The effect of pomelo citrus (Citrus maxima var. Nambangan), Vitamin C and lycopene towards the number reduction of mice (Mus musculus) apoptotic hepatocyte caused of ochratoxin A’, AIP Conference Proceedings, 1854(2017).

Bae, J. Y. et al., (2009) ‘Bog blueberry anthocyanins alleviate photoaging in ultraviolet-B irradiation-induced human dermal fibroblasts’, Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 53(6), pp. 726–738.

Chang, C. et al., (2002) ‘Estimation of Total Flavonoid Content in Propolis by Two Complementary Colorimetric Methods’, 10(3), pp. 178–182.

Chang, C. T. et al., (2013) ‘Chemical composition and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of Cinnamomum cassia essential oil’, Botanical Studies, 54(1), pp. 2–8.

Cuvelier, M. E., Richard, H. and Berset, C. (1992) ‘Comparison of the Antioxidative Activity of Some Acid-phenols: Structure-Activity Relationship’, Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 56(2), pp. 324–325.

Giampieri, F. et al., (2014) ‘Polyphenol-rich strawberry extract protects human dermal fibroblasts against hydrogen peroxide oxidative damage and improves mitochondrial functionality’, Molecules, 19(6), pp. 7798–7816.

Inomata, S. et al., (2003) ‘Possible involvement of gelatinases in basement membrane damage and wrinkle formation in chronically ultraviolet B-exposed hairless mouse’, Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Elsevier Masson SAS, 120(1), pp. 128–134.

Karim, A. A. et al., (2014) ‘Phenolic composition, antioxidant, anti-wrinkles and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities of Cocoa Pod Extract’, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14(381), pp. 1–13.

Khrisnamurthy, P. and Wadhwani, A. (2012) ‘Antioxidant Enzymes and Human Health’, in Antioxidant Enzymes and Human Health, pp. 1–18.

Kim, J. H. et al., (2009) ‘Compounds with elastase inhibition and free radical scavenging activities from Callistemon lanceolatus’, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3(11), pp. 914–920.

Klungsupya, P. et al., (2015) ‘Determination of free radical scavenging, antioxidative DNA damage activities and phytochemical components of active fractions from lansium domesticum corr. Fruit’, Nutrients, 7(8), pp. 6852–6873.

Lephart, E. D. (2018) ‘Equol’s anti-aging effects protect against environmental assaults by increasing skin antioxidant defense and ECM proteins while decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation’, Cosmetics, 5(1), pp. 1–17.

Lukitaningsih, E. (2014) ‘Bioactive Compounds in Bengkoang (Pachyrhizus Erosus) as Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibiting Agents’, Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy, 25(2), p. 68.

Menaa, F., Menaa, A. and Tréton, J. (2013) ‘Polyphenols against Skin Aging’, in Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease, pp. 819–830. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-398456-2.00063-3.

Nur, S., Rumiyati, R. and Lukitaningsih, E. (2017) ‘Screening of Antioxidants, Anti-Aging and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activities of Ethanolic and Ethyl Acetate Extracts of Fruit Flesh and Fruit Peel Langsat (Lansium domesticum Corr) In Vitro’, Majalah Obat Tradisional, 22(1), p. 63.

Nurrochmad, A. et al., (2018) ‘Effects of antioxidant, anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, anti-tyrosinase of the extract and fraction from Turbinaria decurrens Bory’, Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy, 29(4), pp. 188–199.

Ochiai, A. et al., (2016). ‘Rice bran protein as a potent source of antimelanogenic peptides with tyrosinase inhibitory activity’, Journal of Natural Products, 79(10), pp. 2545–2551.

Poljšak, B., Dahmane, R. G. and Godić, A. (2012) ‘Intrinsic skin aging: The role of oxidative stress’, Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica, pp. 33–36.

Pullar, J. M., Carr, A. C. and Vissers, M. C. M. (2017) ‘The Roles of Vitamin C in Skin Health’, (Figure 1).

Qonita, F. (2017). Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Buah Strawberry (Fragaria X Ananassa (Duchesne Ex Weston)) Sebagai Bahan Kosmetik: Uji Aktivitas Antiaging dan Antibakteri Secara In Vitro. Yogyakarta: Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University.

Vijaylakshmi, P. and Radha, R. (2015) ‘An overview: Citrus maxima’, The Journal of Phytopharmacology, 4(5), pp. 263–267. Available at: www.phytopharmajournal .com.

Wang, F. et al., (2008) ‘Effect of increased pigmentation on the antifibrotic response of human skin to UV-A1 phototherapy’, Archives of Dermatology, 144(7), pp. 851–858.

Wong, S. K., Lim, Y. Y. and Chan, E. W. C. (2010) ‘Evaluation of antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and antibacterrial activities of selected Hibiscus species’, Ethobotanical Leaflets, 14(June), pp. 781–796.

Xu, G. et al., (2008) ‘Juice components and antioxidant capacity of citrus varieties cultivated in China’, Food Chemistry, 106(2), pp. 545–551.

Ya Luo, Hao-ru Tang *, Xiao-rong Wang, Yong Zhang, Z. L. (2011) ‘Antioxidant properties and involved antioxidant compounds of strawberry fruit at different maturity stages’, Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 9(1), pp. 166–170.

Zulbayu, L. ode (no date) Uji Aktivitas Antiaging dan Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol dan Etil Asetat Kulit Buah Jeruk Bali (Citrus maxima L.) secara In Vitro. Yogyakarta: Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1900 | views : 1368


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Majalah Obat Tradisional

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

©Majalah Obat Tradisional (Trad.Med.J) 
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Gadjah Mada