Serum Biochemical Changes in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats and Ameliorative Effects of Moringa oleifera and Morinda lucida Leaf Extracts

https://doi.org/10.22146/mot.69945

Amadi Anthonia Nnenna Chuks(1), Chinedu-Ndukwe Peace Amarachi(2), Ijioma Solomon Nnah(3), Robert Ikechukwu Uroko(4*), Madubike Kelechi Gideon(5)

(1) Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria
(2) Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria
(3) Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria
(4) Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.
(5) Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This study evaluated the antidiabetic properties and biochemical changes in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with Moringa oleifera and Morinda lucida leaf extracts. The acute toxicity values of the extracts were determined before evaluating their antidiabetic effects in 7 groups of 4 rats each. Rats in groups 1-6 were made diabetic via a single injection of alloxan monohydrate (160 mg/kg i.p). Animals whose blood glucose levels rose to 200 mg/dl and above were considered diabetic and used for the study, but group 7 was the normal control. Groups 1 and 2 received 500 and 250 mg/kg of M. oleifera extract, respectively, while groups 3 and 4 received 500 and 250 mg/kg of M. lucida extract, respectively. Group 5 received 3 mg/kg of the standard drug (Daonil), while groups 6 and 7 were the diabetic and normal control groups, respectively. Treatment lasted for 21 days and was administered orally. The phytochemical screening results showed that each of the extracts was rich in phytochemical agents. Higher amounts of flavonoids and terpenoids were found in M. oleifera, while M. lucida had higher phenols and saponins. LD50 value obtained for each extract was above 5000 mg/kg. Results of the antidiabetic study indicated that the extracts significantly brought down glucose levels in the test rats (p<0.05) when compared with the diabetic control. Treatment also restored elevated lipids values, liver function, and renal function parameters in the diabetic rats. The decreased glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities and increased lipid peroxidations resulting from diabetes mellitus induction were also significantly corrected following extracts administration when compared with the diabetic control (p<0.05). Our findings show that Moringa oleifera and Morinda lucida extracts may be safe for use in the management of diabetes mellitus and its associated biochemical complications.


Keywords


Diabetes mellitus; Moringa oleifera; Morinda lucida; antioxidants; liver functions; renal markers; lipid profile

Full Text:

PDF


References

Abd El Latif, A., El Bialy Bel S., Mahboub, H.D., AbdEldaim, M.A. (2014). Moringaoleifera leaf extract ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes in rats by regeneration of β cells and reduction of pyruvate carboxylase expression. Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 92(5):413-419.

Agbo, G.K., Tarkang, P.A., Fogha, J.V.Z., Biviti, L.F., Tamza, V., Messi, H.M., Tsabang, N., Longo, F., Tchinda, A., Donguo, B., et al. (2012). Acute and sub-acute studies of aqueous extract of Murindalucider stem-bark. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 7(3): 158-165.

Akomas, S.C Okafor A.I., Ijioma, S.N. (2014b). Glucose level, Haematological parameters, and lipid profile in Ficussurtreated diabetic rats. Comprehensive Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 2(1): 5-11.

Akomas S.C., Okafor A.I., and Ijioma, S.N. (2014). Hypoglycemic, Hematologic, and Hypolipidemic Activity of Mucunapruriens ethanol leaf extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Annual Research and Review in Biology 4(24): 4284-4292.

AOAC (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington D.C

Asare, G.A., Gyan B., Bugyei K., Adjei S., Mahama R., Addo P., Otu-Nyarko L.,Wiredu EK, and Nyarko A.(2012). Toxicity Potentials of the NutraceuticalMoringaoleiferaat supra-supplementation levels. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.;139:265–72.

Bakris, G.L. (1993). Diabetes Nephropathy. What you need to know to Preserve Kidney Function. Postgraduate Medicine, 93:89-90.

Bays, H., Mandarino, L., &DeFronzo, R. A. (2004). Role of the adipocyte, free fatty acids, and ectopic fat in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus: peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor agonists provide a rational therapeutic approach. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(2), 463-478.

Dalziel, J. M. (1937). The useful plants of west tropical Africa. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa.

Day, A.P. and Mayne, P.D. (1994). MayneClinical Chemistry in Diagnosis and Treatment(6th ed.), CRC Press, London.

Dineshkumar, B., Mitra A. and Manjunatha M. (2010). Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Mahanimbine (Carbazole alkaloid) from Murrayakoenigii (Rutaceae) leaves.InternationalJournal of Phytomedical, 2: 22-30.

Dobbs, N.A., Twelves, C.J., Gregory, W., Cruickshanka, C., Richrds, M.A., and Rubens, R.D. (2003). Epirubicin in Patients with Liver DysfunctionDevelopment and Evaluation of a Novel Dose Modification Scheme. European Journal Cancer, 39: 580-586.

Ejikeme, C.M., Ezeonu, C.S. and Eboatu, A.N (2014). "Determination of physical and phytochemical constituents of some tropical timbers indigenous to Niger Delta Area of Nigeria," European Scientific Journal, 10(18): 247–270.

Ezekwe, C.I.andObidoa O. (2001) Biochemical effect of Vernoniaamygalinaon Rats LiverMicrosomes. Nigeria Journal of Biochemical Molecular Biology, 16(3):1745-1798.

Gasi, S., Nwodobo,E. and Ofili, J.O. (2000). Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Crude Extract of leaf of MoringaoleiferaLamin high-fat diet-fed Wistar Rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 69:21-5.

Giacco, F. and Brownlee, M. (2010) Oxidative stress and diabetic complications.Circular Resources; 107: 1058-70.

Gumieniczek, A., Hopkała, H., Wójtowicz, Z.andNikołajuk, J. (2002) Changes in Antioxidant Status of Heart Muscle Tissue in Experimental Diabetes inRabbits. Acta Biochim Pol; 49(2): 529-35.

Harbone, J.B. (1998). Methods of extraction and Isolation 'Phytochemical Methods'. 3rdedition Chapman and Hall, London, PP: 60 - 66.

Hisham, M.O., Shayoub, M., Babiker, E., Faiza, A. (2015). Assessment of acute toxicity of Moringaoleifera ethanol leaf extract in albino rats and rabbits. Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 1(4): 38-43.

Hui, H., Tang, G. and Go, V.L.W. (2009). Hypoglycemic Herbs and their Action Mechanisms. Chinese Medicine;4:(11):1-11.

Igwe, K.K., Nwankwo, P.O., Otuokere, I.E., Ijioma, S.N., Amaku, F.M. (2015). GCMS analysis of Phytocomponents in the methanolic extract of Moringaoleifera leaves. Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(11): 01- 06.

Iweala, E.E.J. and Oludare, F.D. (2011). Hypoglycemic effect, biochemical and histological changes of Spondiasmombin Linn and Parinaripolyandrabenth. Seed ethanolic extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 6:101-112.

Johnson, M., Olufunmilayo, L.A., Adegboyga, C.C and Adetayo, O.M. (2014).Evaluation of antidiabetic and the effect of methanolic leaf extract of Jatropha curcas on some biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic male albino rats. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 4(12): 1501-1512.

Joseph, B. and Jini, D. (2011). Insight into the Hyperglycaemic Effect of Traditional Indian Herbs used in the Treatment of Diabetes. Research Journal of Medicinal plants. 5(4):352-376.

Khleifat, K., Shakhabeh, J., and Tarawne, H. (2002). The chronic effect of Tuecriumpolium on some blood parameters and histopathology of liver and kidney in rats. Turkey Journal of Biology. 26:9.

Liamis, G, Rodenburg, E.M., Hofman, A., Zietse, R., Stricker, B.H. and Hoorn, E.J. (2013). Electrolyte disorders in community subjects: prevalence and risk factors. American Journal of Medical, 126: 256–263.

Luke, U.O., Ebong, P.E., Eyong, E.U., Robert, A.E., Ufot, S.U. and Egbung, G.E. (2013) Effect of ethanolic root and twig extracts of Vernoniaamygdalina (etidot) on liver function parameters of streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemic and normal Wistar rats.European Scientific Journal, 9(30): 1857-7881.

Mafu, S., and Zerbe, P. (2018). Plant diterpenoid metabolism for manufacturing the biopharmaceuticals of tomorrow: prospects and challenges. Phytochemistry Reviews, 17(1), 113-130.

Maritim, A. C., Sanders, R. A., and Watkins, J. B. (2003). Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterised by hyperglycemia and insufficiency of secretion or action of endogenous insulin. Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology, 17, 24-38.

Misrha, G., Singh, P., Verma, R., Kumar, S., Srivastav, S., Jha, K.K. and Khosa R.L.(2011). Traditional uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties of MoringaoleiferaPlant: an overview. Der Pharmacological Letter, (2):141–64.

Muhammad, H.L.A., Yusuf, K., Musa, B.B., Abdullah, M., Abubakar, S.A., Abdulrazaq, T.U.andUsman, A. (2016). Acute oral toxicity study of ethanol extract of Ceibapentandra leaves as a glucose-lowering agent in diabetic rats. Journal of Acute Disease, 5(3): 237-243.

Nayak, B.S., Rodrigues, V., Rao, A.V.C. (2020). Evaluation of the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of Moringaoleiferaand Morindacitrifolialeaf extracts in diabetic rats; a comparative study. Annals of Research in Antioxidants, 2020;5:e02.

Nwanjo, H.U. (2005) Efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Vernoniaamygdalinaon plasma lipoprotein and oxidative status in diabetic rats models. NigerJournal of Physiological Sciences, 20:39-42.

Nwanjo, H.U. (2007) Studies on the effect of aqueous extract of Phyllanthusnirurionplasmaglucose level and some hepato-specific markers in diabetic Wistar rats. International Journal Laboratory of Medical, 2(2):1-18.

Obogwu, M.B., Akindele, A.J., and Olufunmilayo, O. A. (2014) Hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Mucunapruriens(Fabaceae) in anti-tubercular drugs and alcohol models. Chinese Journal of NaturalMedicines, 12(4): 273-283.

Olajide O A., Awe S.O., Makinde J M and Morebise O, (1999). Evaluation of the antidiabetic property of M.lucidaleaves in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology; 51(11):1321-1324.

Onwuka, G.I. (2005). Food analysis and instrumentation. Theory and practice. 1stedition, pp 1-129. Naphthali Prints Nigeria.

Organisation for Economic Corporation and Development. Acute Oral Toxicity - Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP). Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals (OECD 425), 2008. [Adopted 03 October 2008].

Orieke, D.,Ohaeri, O.C., Ijeh, I.I., Ijioma, S.N. (2019). Gastrointestinal and uterine smooth muscles relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects of Corchorusolitoriusleaf extract in laboratory animal models—Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 247 (2020) 112224.

Oshilonya, H.U., Ibeh, I.N., Nwachukwu, N.C.,Ijioma, S.N.(2015). Haematological and biochemical parameters in chinchilla rabbits treated with Caulis bambusae (Bamboo) stem extract. Central European Journal of Experimental Biology. 4(1): 5-10.

Osuntokun, O. T. (2021). Efficacy, Properties and Therapeutic Use of Some Major Medicinal Plants for Human Health. Biopesticides: Botanicals and Microorganisms for Improving Agriculture and Human Health, 179.

Owoade, A.O., Adetutu, A. and Abiodun, B.A. (2017) Protective effects of Moringaoleiferaleaves against oxidative stress in diabetic rats. World Journal of Pharmacological Sciences;5(11): 64-71.

Pushparaj, P., Tan, C.H. and Tan, B.K.H. (2000). Effect of Averrhoabilimbileaf extracts on blood glucose and lipids in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 72:69-76.

Rains, J.L. and Jain, S.K. (2011). Oxidative stress, insulin signalling, and diabetes.FreeRadicalBiology Medical; 50(5): 567-75.

Ramesh, S. (2015). Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative effects of Noni (M.citrifolia) fruits in experimental and clinical models. WNRF Technical Bulletin-16, World Noni Research Foundation and PRIST University, India, p.55

Robinson, S., Delongeas, J.L., Donald, E., Dreher, D., Festag, M., Kervyn, S., Lampo, A., Nahas, K., Nogues, V., Ockert, D., Quinn, K., Old, S., Pickersgill, N., Somers, K., Stark, C., Stei, P., Waterson, L, and Chapman, K.A.(2008). European Pharmaceutical Company Initiative Challenging the RegulatoryRequirement for Acute Toxicity Studies in Pharmaceutical DrugDevelopment. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.;50(3):345–52.

Tuvemo, T., Ewald, U., Kobbah, M. and Proos, L.A. (1997) Serum magnesium and protein concentration during the first five years of insulin-dependent diabetes in children. Journal of Cell Molecular Medicine, 418:7-10.

Yassa, H.D., Tohamy, A.F. (2014). Extract of Moringaoleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in adult rats. ActaHistochemistry, 116(5):844-54.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/mot.69945

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 396 | views : 239

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2022 Majalah Obat Tradisional

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

©Majalah Obat Tradisional (Trad.Med.J) 
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Gadjah Mada