Evaluation of Flavonoid Content from Shoot Culture of Gynura procumbens in Balloon-type Bubble Bioreactors


Ira Nailas Sa'adah(1*), Yosephine Sri Wulan Manuhara(2), Alfinda Novi Kristanti(3)

(1) Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo, Semarang
(2) Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Airlangga University, Surabaya
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Airlangga University, Surabaya
(*) Corresponding Author


Gynura procumbens has been widely used to treat several health disorders, such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, diabetes, and allergies. This study aimed to determine the flavonoid content of G. procumbens cultured in a balloon-type bubble bioreactor using various sucrose concentrations (10, 30, and 50 g/L) and explant densities (5, 10, and 15 explants). The plant parts used were stem nodes of G. procumbens, grown in a balloon-type bubble bioreactor using Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid media with IAA 2 mg/L and BAP 4 mg/L. The total flavonoid content was measured using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer (λ= 510 nm), and the flavonoid profile was tested using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The administration of 10 g/L sucrose produced the highest total flavonoid production. In the treatment of explant density, the most increasing total flavonoid production was obtained in the treatment of 5 explants. The TLC results showed that each treatment forms spots like standard. This study proved that sucrose and explant densities culture on balloon-type bubble bioreactor method had optimized the production of flavonoids of plant shoots of G. procumbens culture.


Gynura procumbens; flavonoid; sucrose concentrations; explant densities

Full Text:



Algariri, K., Atangwho, I. J., Meng K. Y., Asmawi, M. Z., Sadikun, A. dan Murugaiyah, Vi. 2014. Antihyperglycaemic and Toxicological Evaluations of Extract and Fractions of Gynura procumbens Leaves. Tropical Life Sciences Research. 25 (1): 75–93.

Ball, Ernest. (1953). Hydrolysis of Sucrose by Autoclaving Media, a Neglected Aspect in the Technique of Culture of Plant Tissues. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 80(5), 409-411.

Baque, M. A. Shiragi, M. H. K., Moh, S., Lee, E., dan Paek, K. 2013. Production of biomass and bioactive compounds by adventitious root suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia (L.) in a liquid-phase air lift balloon-type bioreactor. In Vitro Cellular Development Biology. 49: 737–749.

Chattopadhyay S., Farkya, S., Srivastava, A. K., dan Bisaria, V. S. 2002. Bioprocess Considerations for Production of Secondary Metabolites by Plant Cell Suspension Cultures. Biotechnology Bioprocessing Engineering. 7: 138-149.

Cui, H., Murthya, H. N., Mohc, S. H., Cui, Y, Lee E., dan Paeka, K. 2014. Protocorm culture of Dendrobium candidum in balloon-type bubble bioreactors. Biochemical Engineering. 88: 26–29.

Debnath, S.C., 2008. Using a bioreactor, developing a scale-up system for the in vitro multiplication of thidiazuron-induced strawberry shoots. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 88: 737–746.

Faizah, H., Tanjung, M., Purnobasuki, H., Manuhara, Y.S.W., 2018. Biomass and Flavonoid Production of Gynura procumbens (L.). Merr Adventitious Root Culture in Baloon-type Bubble-bioreactor Influenced by Elicitation. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 17 (2): 107-119.

Ferreryra, M. L. F., Rius, S. P., dan Casati, P. 2012. Flavonoids: biosynthesis, biological function, and biotechnological applications. Frontiers in Plant Science. 3(222): 1-15.

Gwatidzo, L. Pamhidzai D. and Mkululi M. 2018. TLC separation and antioxidant activity of flavonoids from Carissa bispinosa, Ficus sycomorus, and Grewia bicolar fruits. Nutrire. 43(3):1-7.

Jang, Y., Abdullahi, M. Baque, Shiragi, M.H.K., Sang-Hyun, Moh, Lee, E., and Paek, K. 2013. CO2-enriched microenvironment induces biosynthesis of anthraquinones, phenolics, and flavonoids in bioreactor cell suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia (L.): the role of antioxidants and enzymes. Asian Journal of Crop Science. 7(11):1606-1616.

Jaremicz, Z., Luczkiewicz, M., Kokotkiewicz, A., Krolicka, A., dan Sowinski, P. 2014. Production of tropane alkaloids in Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane) hairy roots grown in bubble-column and spray bioreactors. Biotechnolgy Letter. 36: 843–853.

Kaewseejan, N. dan Siriamornpun, S. 2015. Bioactive components and properties of ethanolic extract and its fractions from Gynura procumbens leaves. Industrial Crops and Products. 74: 271–278.

Kaewseejan, N., Sutthikum, V. and Siriamompun, S. 2015. The potential of Gynura procumbens leaves as a source of flavonoid-enriched fractions with enhanced antioxidant capacity. Journal of Potential Food. 12: 120-128.

Keng C. L., Yee L. S., dan Pin P. L. 2009. Micropropagation of Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. an important medicinal plant. Medicinal Plants Research. 3 (3): 105-111.

Kim M., Lee, H. J , Wiryowidagdo, S., dan Kim, H. K. 2006. Antihypertensive Effects of Gynura procumbens Extract in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Journal of Medicinal Food. 4: 587–590.

Kokotkiewicz , A. Bucinski, A. Dan Luczkiewicz, M. 2015. Xanthone, benzophenone, and bioflavonoid accumulation in Cyclopia genistoides (L.) Vent. (honeybush) shoot cultures grown on membrane rafts and in a temporary immersion system. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture. 120: 373–378.

Kwiecien, I., Szydłowska, A., Kawka, B., Beerhues, L., dan Ekiert, H. 2015. Accumulation of biologically active phenolic acids in agitated shoot cultures of three Hypericum perforatum cultivars: ‘Elixir’, ‘Helos’ and ‘Topas’. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture. DOI 10.1007/s11240-015-0830-3.

Lee, E., Moh, S., dan Paek, K. 2011. Influence of inoculum density and aeration volume on biomass and bioactive compound production in bulb-type bubble bioreactor cultures of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai. Bioresource Technology. 102: 7165–7170.

Lim, H., dan Kim, H.P. 2007. Inhibition of mammalian collagenase, matrix metalloproteinase-1, by naturally-occurring flavonoids. Planta Medica. 73: 1267–1274.

Lulu, T., Park, S, Ibrahim, R., dan Paek, K. 2015. Production of biomass and bioactive compounds from adventitious roots by optimization of culturing conditions of Eurycoma longifolia in balloon-type bubble bioreactor system. Bioscience and Bioengineering. 119 (6): 712-717.

Manuhara, Y. S.W., Kristanti, A. V., Utami, E. S. W., dan Yachya, A. 2015. Effect of Sucrose and Potassium nitrate on bimass and saponin content of Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. Hairy root in balloon-type bubble bioreactor. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 5(12): 1027-1032.

Mariateresa, C., Maria, C. S. C., dan Giuseppe, C. 2014. Influence of ozone treatments on in vitro propagation of Aloe barbadensis in continuous immersion bioreactor. Industrial Crops and Products. 55:194–201.

Markham, K.R. 1982. Techniques of Flavonoid Identification. Academic Press INC. London.

Markunas, I., Narozna, D., Nowak, W., Samardakiewicz, S., dan RemLein-Starosa, D. 2011. Cross-talk interactions of sucrose and Fusarium oxysporum in the phenylpropanoid pathway and the accumulation and localization of flavonoids in embryo axes of yellow lupine. Journal of Plant Physiology. 168: 424-433.

Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiology Plant. 15:473–497.

Rahman A.F.M.M. dan Al Asad, M.S. 2013. Chemical and biological investigations of the leaves of Gynura procumbens. International Journal of Biosciences. 3(4): 36-43.

Robinson, T. 1995. Kandungan Organik Tumbuhan Tinggi. Terjemahan. Penerbit ITB. Bandung.

Saadah, I.N., Kristanti, A.N. Hardjo, P.H., and Manuhara, Y.S.W. 2019. Shoots Culture of Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. in Balloon-Type Bubble-bioreactor Influenced by Sucrose Concentration and Inoculums Density. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 18(2): 85-90.

Salisbury, F.B. dan Ross, C. W. 1992. Plant Physiology, 4th edition.Wadsworth Publishing Co., A Division of Wadsworht, Inc.

Tan, H., Chan, K., Pusparajah, P., Lee, L., dan Goh, B. 2016. Gynura procumbens: An Overview of the Biological Activities. Ethnopharmacology. 7(52):1-14.

Wang, J., Man, S., Gao, W., Zhang. L., and Huang, L. 2013. Cluster analysis of ginseng tissue cultures, dynamic change of growth, total saponins, specific oxygen uptake rate in the bioreactor, and immuno-regulative effect of ginseng adventitious root. Industrial Crops and Products. 41: 57– 63.

Winkel-Shirley, B. 2001. Flavonoid biosynthesis. A colorful model for genetics, biochemistry, cell biology, and biotechnology. Plant Physiology. 126(2): 485-93.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/mot.72734

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 442 | views : 77


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Majalah Obat Tradisional

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

©Majalah Obat Tradisional (Trad.Med.J) 
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Gadjah Mada