Antioxidant Activity of Tempeh Ethanolic Extract on Male Swiss Mouse Brain

Yohanes Dwiatmaka(1), Nunung Yuniarti(2), Endang Lukitaningsih(3), Subagus Wahyuono(4*)

(1) *) Doctoral Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sleman, Yogyakarta *) Faculty of Pharmacy, Sanata Dharma University, Sleman, Yogyakarta
(2) Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sleman, Yogyakarta
(3) Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(4) Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Tempeh is an Indonesian food made of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) by fermentation using Rhizopus spp mold. Soybean has a high content of protein, fatty acids, vitamins, and isoflavone glycosides. Isoflavone glycosides are poorly absorbed in the human intestine. Fermentation hydrolyzes isoflavone glycosides into isoflavone aglycones which are easily absorbed. Soybean has three main isoflavones, they are genistein, daidzein, and glycitein. They are good antioxidants and have estrogen-like activity. This research studies the antioxidant activity of tempeh ethanolic extract by determining the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the brain tissue of male Swiss mice. All test substances were diluted in 0.5% CMC-Na solution and administered orally once daily for 12 days. The 0.5 mL of 15% ethanol solution (16.67 mL/kg BW) was administered 1 hour before the other substances. Tempeh ethanolic extract (500 mg/kg BW) as the main treatment. Donepezil-HCl (1 mg/kg BW) and genistein (2.55 mg/kg BW) were used as the positive control groups. The mouse brain SOD and GPx concentration were determined on the 13th day. Results showed a significant depletion of SOD and GPx concentration by ethanol administration. Compared to the control group, mice with tempeh ethanolic extract showed no significant change in the GPx concentration but a little decrease in SOD. The SOD in the group of tempeh ethanolic extract was significantly higher than in the group of donepezil-HCl and genistein. Briefly concluded that tempeh ethanolic extract has better antioxidant activity than donepezil-HCl and genistein.


Soybean; Glycine max; Tempeh; Antioxidant; SOD; GPx

Full Text:



'Guide For the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals', 2011, In M. B. Ballinger, P. J. r. Baneux, S. W. Barthold, L. C. Cork, J. Hau, M. J. Huerkamp, & E. Al. (Eds.), The National Academies Press (8th ed.), The National Academies Press.

Andrés, M. T., Viejo-Díaz, M., & Fierro, J. F., 2008, 'Human lactoferrin induces apoptosis-like cell death in Candida albicans: Critical role of K+-channel-mediated K+ efflux', Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 52, 4081–4088.

Chen, L., Teng, H., & Xiao, J., 2019, 'A value-added cooking process to improve the quality of soybean: Protecting its isoflavones and antioxidant activity', Food Sci. Hum. Wellness, 8, 195–201.

Contreras-Zentella, M. L., Villalobos-García, D., & Hernández-Muñoz, R., 2022, 'Ethanol Metabolism in the Liver, the Induction of Oxidant Stress, and the Antioxidant Defense System', Antioxidants, 11, 1258.

Cui, C., Birru, R. L., Snitz, B. E., Ihara, M., Kakuta, C., Lopresti, B. J., Aizenstein, H. J., Lopez, O. L., Mathis, C. A., Miyamoto, Y., Kuller, L. H., & Sekikawa, A., 2020, 'Effects of soy isoflavones on cognitive function: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials', Nutr. Rev., 78, 134–144.

Dwiatmaka, Y., Lukitaningsih, E., Yuniarti, N., & Wahyuono, S., 2022, 'Fermentation of Soybean Seeds Using Rhizopus oligosporus for Tempeh Production and Standardization Based on Isoflavones Content', Int. J. Appl. Pharm., 14, 131–136.

Hashim, N., Tai, C. W., Wen, H. X., Ismail, A., & Kong, K. W., 2018, 'Comparative evaluation of antioxidant properties and isoflavones of tempeh fermented in two different wrapping materials', Curr. Res. Nutr. Food Sci., 6, 307–317.

Ighodaro, O. M., & Akinloye, O. A., 2017, 'First line defence antioxidants-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX): Their fundamental role in the entire antioxidant defence grid', Alexandria J. Med., 54, 287–293.

Křížová, L., Dadáková, K., Kašparovská, J., & Kašparovský, T., 2019, 'Isoflavones', Molecules, 24, 1–28.

Mollica, A., Zengin, G., Locatelli, M., Stefanucci, A., Macedonio, G., Bellagamba, G., Onaolapo, O., Onaolapo, A., Azeez, F., Ayileka, A., & Novellino, E., 2017, 'An assessment of the nutraceutical potential of Juglans regia L. leaf powder in diabetic rats', Food Chem. Toxicol., 107, 554–564.

Sayuti, K., & Yenrina, R., 2015, Antioksidan Alami dan Sintetik (1st ed.), Andalas University Press.

Sekikawa, A., Wharton, W., Butts, B., Veliky, C. V., Garfein, J., Li, J., Goon, S., Fort, A., Li, M., & Hughes, T. M., 2022, 'Potential Protective Mechanisms of S-equol, a Metabolite of Soy Isoflavone by the Gut Microbiome, on Cognitive Decline and Dementia', Int. J. Mol. Sci., 23, 1–19.

Uddin, M. S., Mamun, A. Al, Hossain, M. S., & Akter, F., 2016, 'Exploring the Effect of Phyllanthus emblica L . on Cognitive Performance , Brain Antioxidant Markers and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Rats : Promising Natural Gift for the Mitigation of Alzheimer’s Disease', Ann Neurosci, 23, 218–229.

Weydert, C., & Cullen, J., 2009, 'Measurement of Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, and Glutathione Peroxidase in Cultured Cells and Tissue', Nat Protoc., 5, 51–66.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 679 | views : 572


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Majalah Obat Tradisional

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

©Majalah Obat Tradisional (Traditional Medicine Journal)
 ISSN 2406-9086
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Gadjah Mada