The Ameliorative Effects of Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook. F. on Sperm Parameters of Rats Induced with Bisphenol A

Evana Kamarudin(1), Razif Dasiman(2*), Ebby Anuar Bahari(3), Kamalru Azman Daud(4), Nur Rohmah Suwandi(5)

(1) Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor Branch, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor
(2) *) Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor Branch, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor *) Maternofetal and Embryo Research Group (MatE), Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor Branch, Sungai Buloh Campus, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor
(3) Hospital Universiti Teknologi MARA (HUiTM), 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor
(4) Department of Pathology, Hospital Tunku Azizah Kuala Lumpur (HKL), Jalan Pahang, 50586 Kuala Lumpur
(5) Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Aisyiyah Bandung, Jl. Banteng Dalam No.6, kel Turangga, Kec. Lengkong, Kota Bandung,40264 West Java
(*) Corresponding Author


Infertility due to poor sperm quality is a common problem nowadays, particularly in developed countries. Herbs are one of the natural treatment options that have been proposed. Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook. F is a tropical plant that has traditionally been used in Malaysia to treat male infertility. Antioxidant characterization of its root aqueous extraction was performed using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC). Male rats were administered two different concentrations of the extract orally along with BPA for 21 days, and their sperm was evaluated using Computer-Assisted-Sperm-Analysis (CASA). The results showed that this plant has a high antioxidant capacity, with 78.6 ± 0.65 %, 0.14 ± 0.01 mg/ml, 28.52 ± 0.13 mg GAE/g and 164.73 ± 23.13 mg QE/g, for DPPH, FRAP, TPC and TFC respectively. The ability of this plant to enhance sperm concentration, motility, velocity, progression ratio, elongation, and percentages of normal sperm morphology significantly with p<0.05, appears to be due to its high antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, this plant was found to have sperm-protective effects against the endocrine disruptor BPA. A thorough investigation is required to determine the full mechanism of this plant's beneficial effects on male fertility and human health.


Infertility; sperm parameters; Phyllanthus gomphocarpus; antioxidant; Computer-Assisted-Sperm-Analysis (CASA)

Full Text:



Agarwal, A., Baskaran, S., Parekh, N., Cho, C. L., Henkel, R., Vij, S., Arafa, M., Panner Selvam, M. K., & Shah, R. (2021). Male infertility. The Lancet, 397(10271), 319–333.

Agarwal, A., & Sekhon, L. H. (2010). The role of antioxidant therapy in the treatment of male infertility. Human Fertility (Cambridge, England), 13(4), 217–225.

Alahmadi, B. A. (2020). Effect of Herbal Medicine on Fertility Potential in Experimental Animals - an Update Review. Materia Socio-Medica, 32(2), 140.

Andersen, A. G., Jensen, T. K., Carlsen, E., Jørgensen, N., Andersson, A. M., Krarup, T., Keiding, N., & Skakkebæk, N. E. (2000). High frequency of sub-optimal semen quality in an unselected population of young men. 15(2), 366–372.

Ansoumane, K., Duan, P., Quan, C., Yaima, M. L. T., Liu, C., Wang, C., Fu, W., Qi, S., Yu, T., & Yang, K. (2014). Bisphenol A induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the liver and affect epididymal semen quality in adults Sprague-Dawley rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 6(4), 103–112.

Assidi, M. (2022). Infertility in Men: Advances towards a Comprehensive and Integrative Strategy for Precision Theranostics. Cells 2022, Vol. 11, Page 1711, 11(10), 1711.


Behnaz Khani, Soroor Rabbani Bidgoli, Fariborz Moattar, 1 and Hassan Hassani. (2013). Effect of sesame on sperm quality of infertile men. J Res Med Sci., 18(3), 184–187.

Bhagat, M., Gupta, S., Singh, J., & Koul, A. (2014). Iron ( FeII ) Chelation , Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power , and Immune Modulating Potential of Arisaema jacquemontii ( Himalayan Cobra Lily ). 2014.

Chapuis, A., Gala, A., Ferrières-Hoa, A., Mullet, T., Bringer-Deutsch, S., Vintejoux, E., Torre, A., & Hamamah, S. (2017). Sperm quality and paternal age: Effect on blastocyst formation and pregnancy rates. Basic and Clinical Andrology, 27(1), 1–9.

Chauhan, N. S., Sharma, V., Dixit, V. K., & Thakur, M. (2014). A Review on Plants Used for Improvement of Sexual Performance and Virility. 2014.

Chiu, Y. H., Afeiche, M. C., Gaskins, a J., Williams, P. L., Petrozza, J. C., Tanrikut, C., Hauser, R., & Chavarro, J. E. (2015). Fruit and vegetable intake and their pesticide residues in relation to semen quality among men from a fertility clinic. Human Reproduction (Oxford, England), 0(0), 1–10.

Chouhan, S., Yadav, S. K., Prakash, J., Swati, & Singh, S. P. (2014). Effect of Bisphenol A on human health and its degradation by microorganisms: A review. Annals of Microbiology, 64(1), 13–21.

Darbandi, M., Darbandi, S., Agarwal, A., Sengupta, P., Durairajanayagam, D., Henkel, R., & Sadeghi, M. R. (2018). Reactive oxygen species and male reproductive hormones. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2018 16:1, 16(1), 1–14.

de Ligny, W., Smits, R. M., Mackenzie-Proctor, R., Jordan, V., Fleischer, K., de Bruin, J. P., & Showell, M. G. (2022). Antioxidants for male subfertility. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 5(5).

Dk, P., Kumar, R., Sk, P., & Hemalatha, S. (2011). Pharmacologically screened aphrodisiac plant-A review of current scientific literature.

Eshak, M. G., & Osman, H. F. (2014). Biological Effects of Chitosan against Bisphenol- A Induced Endocrine Toxicity and Androgen Receptor Gene Expression Changes in Male Rats (Vol. 6, Issue 4).

Fode, M., Krogh-Jespersen, S., Brackett, N. L., Ohl, D. a, Lynne, C. M., & Sønksen, J. (2012). Male sexual dysfunction and infertility associated with neurological disorders. Asian Journal of Andrology, 14(1), 61–68.

George, A., & Liske, E. (2021). Chapter 9 - Acceptance of herbal medicines in andrology. In R. Henkel & A. B. T.-H. M. in A. Agarwal (Eds.), Herbal Medicine in Andrology (pp. 215–225). Academic Press.

Gravance, C. G., Garner, D. L., Miller, M. G., & Berger, T. (2001). Fluorescent probes and flow cytometry to assess rat sperm integrity and mitochondrial function . 15, 5–10.

Jensen, T. K., Carlsen, E., Jørgensen, N., Berthelsen, J. G., Keiding, N., Christensen, K., Petersen, J. H., Knudsen, L. B., & Skakkebæk, N. E. (2002). Poor semen quality may contribute to recent decline in fertility rates. 17(6), 1437–1440.

Jørgensen, N., Andersen, A., Eustache, F., Irvine, D. S., Suominen, J., Petersen, J. H., Andersen, A. N., Auger, J., Cawood, E. H. H., Horte, A., Jensen, T. K., Jouannet, P., Keiding, N., Vierula, M., Toppari, J., & Skakkebæk, N. E. (2001). Regional differences in semen quality in Europe. 16(5), 1012–1019.

Khatiwora, E., Adsul, V. B., Kulkarni, M. M., Deshpande, N. R., & Kashalkar, R. V. (2010). Spectroscopic determination of total phenol and flavonoid contents of Ipomoea carnea. 2(3), 1698–1701.

Kumar, N., & Singh, A. K. (2022). Impact of environmental factors on human semen quality and male fertility: a narrative review. Environmental Sciences Europe 2022 34:1, 34(1), 1–13.

Lim, P. H. C., Moorthy, P., & Benton, K. G. F. (2002). The clinical safety of viagra. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 962, 378–388.


Marbat, M. M., Ali, M., & Hadi, A. M. (2013). The use of Nigella sativa as a single agent in treatment of male infertility. 9(1), 19–29.

Martin Imhof, Jakob Lackner, Markus Lipovac, P. C. and C. R. (2011). Micronutrient Supplementation Increases Sperm Quality in the Sub-fertile Male Male Infertility. Europian Urological Review, 1–4.

Martins, R. V. L., Silva, A. M. S., Duarte, A. P., Socorro, S., Correia, S., & Maia, C. J. (2021). Natural Products as Protective Agents for Male Fertility. BioChem 2021, Vol. 1, Pages 122-147, 1(3), 122–147.

Massart, A., Lissens, W., Tournaye, H., & Stouffs, K. (2012). Genetic causes of spermatogenic failure. Asian Journal of Andrology, 14(1), 40–48.

Milachich, T., & Dyulgerova-Nikolova, D. (2020). The Sperm: Parameters and Evaluation. Innovations In Assisted Reproduction Technology.

Mocarelli, P., Gerthoux, P. M., Needham, L. L., Patterson, D. G., Limonta, G., Falbo, R., Signorini, S., Bertona, M., Crespi, C., Sarto, C., Scott, P. K., Turner, W. E., & Brambilla, P. (2011). Perinatal exposure to low doses of dioxin can permanently impair human semen quality. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(5), 713–718.

Mohammadi, F., & , Hossein Nikzad, Aliakbar Taherian , Javad Amini Mahabadi, M. S. (2013). Effects of Herbal Medicine on Male Infertility. Anatomical Sciences, 10(4), 3–16.

Nantia, E. a., Moundipa, P. F., Monsees, T. K., & Carreau, S. (2009). Medicinal plants as potential male anti-infertility agents: a review. Andrologie, 19(3), 148–158.

Ogunlesi, M., Okiei, W., Ofor, E., & Awonuga, O. (2009). Determination of the Concentrations of Zinc and Vitamin C in Oysters and Some Medicinal Plants used to Correct Male Factor Infertility. Journal of Natural Products, 2, 89–97.

Othman, A., Mukhtar, N. J., Ismail, N. S., & Chang, S. K. (2014). Phenolics , flavonoids content and antioxidant activities of 4 Malaysian herbal plants. 21(2), 759–766.

P. Tamilselvan, K. Bharathiraja, S. V. A. M. P. B. (2013). PROTECTIVE ROLE OF LYCOPENE ON BISPHENOL A INDUCED CHANGES IN SPERM CHARACTERISTICS , TESTICULAR DAMAGE AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN RATS. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 4(4), 131–143.

Parandin, R., & Ghorbani, R. (2010). Effects of alcoholic extract of Achilea mellefolium flowers on fertility parameters of male rats. 2(4), 2492–2496.

Pratap, S. A., & Rajender, S. (2012). Potent Natural Aphrodisiacs For The Management Of Erectile Dysfunction And Male Sexual Debilities. 1(4), 167–180.

Rahmatollah Parandin, Namdar Yousofvand, R. G. (2012). The enhancing effects of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on fertility potential, plasma gonadotropins and testosterone in male rats. Iran J Reprod Med, 10(4), 355–362.

Rimar, K., Trost, L., & Brannigan, R. E. (2013). Microsurgery for Fertility Specialists.

Roozbeh, N., Amirian, A., Abdi, F., & Haghdoost, S. (2021). A Systematic Review on Use of Medicinal Plants for Male Infertility Treatment. Journal of Family & Reproductive Health, 15(2), 74.

Ros-Santaella, J. L., & Pintus, E. (2021). Plant Extracts as Alternative Additives for Sperm Preservation. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 10(5).

Sengupta, P., Dutta, S., Karkada, I. R., & Chinni, S. V. (2021). Endocrinopathies and Male Infertility. Life 2022, Vol. 12, Page 10, 12(1), 10.

Shabsigh, A., Kang, Y., Shabsign, R., & Gonzalez, M. (2005). Clomiphene Citrate Effects on Testosterone/Estrogen Ratio in Male Hypogonadism. 716–721.

State, A. I., M, E. J. O. I., & Udo, F. O. (2013). Ethnomedicinal Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Male Infertilty among the IFA Nkari People of Ini Local Government Area of. 2, 5–11.

Suleiman, I., Mabrouk, M. A., Alhassan, A. W., & State, K. (2014). Effect of aqueous root extract of Fadogia andersonii on sperm count and motility in adult male Wistar rats. 2(4), 33–36.

Taid, T. C., Rajkhowa, R. C., & Kalita, J. C. (2014). A study on the medicinal plants used by the local traditional healers of Dhemaji district , Assam , India for curing reproductive health related disorders. 5(1), 296–301.

Umadevi, M., Kumar, P. K. S., Bhowmik, D., & Duraivel, S. (2013). Medicinal Plants with Potential Antifertility Activity. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 1(1), 26–33.

Vardi, Y., Klein, L., Nassar, S., Sprecher, E., & Gruenwald, I. (2002). Effects of sildenafil citrate (viagra) on blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive men. Urology, 59(5), 747–752.

Vernaeve, V., Tournaye, H., Osmanagaoglu, K., Verheyen, G., Van Steirteghem, A., & Devroey, P. (2003). Intracytoplasmic sperm injection with testicular spermatozoa is less successful in men with nonobstructive azoospermia than in men with obstructive azoospermia. Fertility and Sterility, 79(3), 529–533.

Vloeberghs, V., Verheyen, G., & Tournaye, H. (2013). Intracytoplasmic spermatid injection and in vitro maturation: fact or fiction? Clinics, 68(Suppl 1), 151.

Vom Saal, F. S., & Vandenberg, L. N. (2021). Update on the Health Effects of Bisphenol A: Overwhelming Evidence of Harm. Endocrinology, 162(3).


Wogatzky, J., Wirleitner, B., Stecher, A., Vanderzwalmen, P., Neyer, A., Spitzer, D., Schuff, M., Schechinger, B., & Zech, N. H. (2012). The combination matters - distinct impact of lifestyle factors on sperm quality : a study on semen analysis of 1683 patients according to MSOME criteria. 2–10.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 48 | views : 6


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Majalah Obat Tradisional

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

©Majalah Obat Tradisional (Traditional Medicine Journal)
 ISSN 2406-9086
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Gadjah Mada