Assessment of Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Acioa barteri Extract (ABE) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Robert Ikechukwu Uroko(1), Henry Nnaemeka Ogbonna(2*), Chinedu Aguwamba(3), Paul Chukwuemeka Nweje-Anyalowu(4), Benedict Chidozie Umezurike(5)

(1) Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State
(2) Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State
(3) Biochemistry Unit, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Clifford University, Owerrinta, Abia State
(4) Biochemistry Unit, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Clifford University, Owerrinta, Abia State
(5) Department of Public Health, Gregory University Uturu, Abia State
(*) Corresponding Author


This study aimed to investigate the effects of Acioa barteri extract (ABE) on hepatocellular enzyme activity, hepatic function, and antioxidant stress indices in diabetic rats induced with alloxan. The antidiabetic effect of ABE was evaluated in six experimental groups: normal controls, diabetics untreated, diabetics treated with 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg, or 800 mg/kg ABE, and diabetics treated with 3 mg/kg Glibenclamide. ABE was orally administered to induce diabetes, and alloxan-monohydrate was intraperitoneally administered. Diabetic untreated rats exhibited significantly elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate, and alanine transaminase activities, as well as higher concentrations of total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, and malondialdehyde. They also showed decreased levels of total protein, albumin, globulin, and protein-bound iodine, along with reduced antioxidant enzyme activity. In contrast, diabetic rats administered ABE demonstrated reduced hepatocellular enzyme activity and improved hepatic function. These rats exhibited increased levels of total protein, globulin, and albumin, as well as higher levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities, compared to diabetic untreated rats. The findings suggest that ABE may help prevent oxidative stress and improve hepatic functions in diabetic rats. ABE treatment led to decreased hepatocellular enzyme activity and improved hepatic function, along with increased antioxidant enzyme activities. These results highlight the potential of ABE as a therapeutic option for diabetes-induced liver dysfunction. Further research is warranted to explore its mechanisms of action and potential clinical applications.


Acioa barteri; Antioxidant enzymes; Diabetes mellitus; Hepatic enzymes; Hepatic functions; Oxidative stress

Full Text:



Acland, J.D. (1971). The interpretation of the serum protein-bound iodine: A review. J. Clin. Pathol. 24, 187–218.

Aloh, G., Obeagu, E., Ifeanyi, Emeka, O., Kanu, S., Ngozika, Okpara, K., Ezechukwu, Uzoma, U., Ononogbu, C. (2015). EFFECTS OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF ACIOA BARTERI ON HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE AND LIPID PROFILE OF ALBINO RAT 2, 573–588.

Anyanwu, O., Chukwudulue, U., Okolo, C., Obidiegwu, O., Okoye, F. (2023). Studies on phytochemical constituents of Acioa barteri (Chrysobalanaceae) leaf extract and its anti-inflammatory properties. World J. Biol. Pharm. Health Sci. 14, 200–211.

Ashor, A.W., Chowdhury, S., Oggioni, C., Qadir, O., Brandt, K., Ishaq, A., Mathers, J.C., Saretzki, G., Siervo, M. (2016). Inorganic Nitrate Supplementation in Young and Old Obese Adults Does Not Affect Acute Glucose and Insulin Responses but Lowers Oxidative Stress. J. Nutr. 146, 2224–2232.

Awad, S., El-Sayed, M.I., Wahba, A., El Attar, A., Yousef, M.I., Zedan, M. (2016). Antioxidant activity of milk protein hydrolysate in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J. Dairy Sci. 99, 8499–8510.

Balbi, M.E., Tonin, F.S., Mendes, A.M., Borba, H.H., Wiens, A., Fernandez-Llimos, F., Pontarolo, R. (2018). Antioxidant effects of vitamins in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetol. Metab. Syndr. 10, 18.

Chen, S.C.-C., Tsai, S.P., Jhao, J.-Y., Jiang, W.-K., Tsao, C.K., Chang, L.-Y. (2017). Liver Fat, Hepatic Enzymes, Alkaline Phosphatase and the Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study of 132,377 Adults. Sci. Rep. 7, 4649.

Crasto, W., Patel, V., Davies, M.J., Khunti, K. (2021). Prevention of Microvascular Complications of Diabetes. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. 50, 431–455.

Dahiya, R., Buttar, H.S., Gupta, S.K. (2022). Pathophysiology of Diabetes-Induced Complications, in Handbook of Nutraceuticals and Natural Products. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 397–421.

Engelhardt, W.V., Arndt, J., Müller, W.F., Stöffler, D. (1971). Shock metamorphism and origin of regolith and breccias at the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 landing sites. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. Proc. 2, 833.


Ibeh, R.C., Ogbonna, H.N., Aloh, G.S., Nwuke, C.P., Ikechukwu, G.C., Dialah, D.O., Usuka, I.C., Nkemjika, K.P., Ezerioha, C.C. (2020). Hepatoprotective, Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Potentials of Mucuna pruriens in a Diabetic Experimental Animal Model. Int. Res. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 3, 20–29.

Igbe, I., Edosuyi, O., Okhuarobo, A. (2018). Harnessing the medicinal properties of Cussonia barteri Seem. ( Araliaceae ) in drug development. A review. Herba Pol. 64, 50–61.

Ikechukwu, U.R., Adeyi, S.R.S., Hadiza, M.K., Lilian, A.C. (2015). Effect of Methanol Extract of Abrus precatorius Leaves on Male Wistar Albino Rats Induced Liver Damage using Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4). J. Biol. Sci. 15, 116–123.

Islam, S., Rahman, S., Haque, T., Sumon, A.H., Ahmed, A.M., Ali, N. (2020). Prevalence of elevated liver enzymes and its association with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi adults. Endocrinol. Diabetes Metab. 3, e00116.

Ito, F., Sono, Y., Ito, T. (2019). Measurement and Clinical Significance of Lipid Peroxidation as a Biomarker of Oxidative Stress: Oxidative Stress in Diabetes, Atherosclerosis, and Chronic Inflammation. Antioxidants 8, 72.

Jollow, D.J., Mitchell, J.R., Zampaglione, N., Gillette, J.R. (1974). Bromobenzene-induced liver necrosis. Protective role of glutathione and evidence for 3,4-bromobenzene oxide as the hepatotoxic metabolite. Pharmacology 11, 151–169.

Kim, S.-M., Diao, W.-J., An, W., Kim, H.-J., Lim, H.-J., Kim, K.-N., Bae, G.-W., Kang, J.-S. (2022). Effect of Porcine Placental Extract Mixture on Alcohol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats. Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 44, 2029–2037.

Matoori, S. (2022). Diabetes and its Complications. ACS Pharmacol. Transl. Sci. 5, 513–515.

Méndez-Sánchez, N., Vítek, L., Aguilar-Olivos, N.E., Uribe, M. (2016). Bilirubin as a Biomarker in Liver Disease, in Preedy, V.R. (Ed.), Biomarkers in Liver Disease, Biomarkers in Disease: Methods, Discoveries and Applications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 1–25.

Mihailović, M., Dinić, S., Arambašić Jovanović, J., Uskoković, A., Grdović, N., Vidaković, M. (2021). The Influence of Plant Extracts and Phytoconstituents on Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Gene Expression in the Prevention and Treatment of Impaired Glucose Homeostasis and Diabetes Complications. Antioxid. Basel Switz. 10, 480.

Misra, H.P., Fridovich, I. (1972). The role of superoxide anion in the autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase. J. Biol. Chem. 247, 3170–3175.

Nasri, H., Shirzad, H., Baradaran, A., Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2015). Antioxidant plants and diabetes mellitus. J. Res. Med. Sci. Off. J. Isfahan Univ. Med. Sci. 20, 491–502.

Nawaz, S., Shareef, M., Shahid, H., Mushtaq, M., Sarfraz, M. (2017). A Review of the antihyperlipidemic effect of synthetic phenolic compounds, in: Matrix Science Medica. pp. 22–26.

Noroozi Karimabad, M., Khalili, P., Ayoobi, F., Esmaeili-Nadimi, A., La Vecchia, C., Jamali, Z. (2022). Serum liver enzymes and diabetes from the Rafsanjan cohort study. BMC Endocr. Disord. 22, 127.

Nwankpa, U.D., Ogbonna, H.N., Udekwu, C.E., Nwokafor, C.V. (2020). Evaluation of Nephrotoxic and Hepatotoxic Potential of Artesunate in Malaria Patients. J. Complement. Altern. Med. Res. 17–24.

Ogbonna, H.N., Nwankpa, U.D., Aloh, G.S., Ibeh, R.C. (2020). Effect of Methanol Extract of Unripe Carica papaya Pulp on Lipid Profile and Liver Function of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats. Int. J. Biochem. Res. Rev. 1–11.

Ogechi Ozioma, A. (2020). Preliminary Phytochemical and Acute Toxicity Studies of Methanol Leaf Extract of Acioa Barteri. Open Access J. Pharm. Res. 4.

Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N., Yagi, K. (1979). Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal. Biochem. 95, 351–358.

Rathor, L. (2021). Medicinal Plants: A Rich Source of Bioactive Molecules Used in Drug Development, in: Mandal, S.C., Chakraborty, R., Sen, S. (Eds.), Evidence-Based Validation of Traditional Medicines: A Comprehensive Approach. Springer, Singapore, pp. 195–209.

Reitman, S., Frankel, S. (1957). A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28, 56–63.

Rizvi, N.B., Aleem, S., Khan, M.R., Ashraf, S., Busquets, R. (2022). Quantitative Estimation of Protein in Sprouts of Vigna Radiate (Mung Beans), Lens culinaris (Lentils), and Cicer arietinum (Chickpeas) by Kjeldahl and Lowry Methods. Molecules 27, 814.

Rotruck, J.T., Pope, A.L., Ganther, H.E., Swanson, A.B., Hafeman, D.G., Hoekstra, W.G. (1973). Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science 179, 588–590.

Sarfraz, M., Khaliq, T., Khan, J.A., Aslam, B. (2017). Effect of aqueous extract of black pepper and ajwa seed on liver enzymes in alloxan-induced diabetic Wister albino rats. Saudi

Pharm. J. SPJ Off. Publ. Saudi Pharm. Soc. 25, 449–452.

Thymus vulgaris extract modulates dexamethasone-induced liver injury and restores the hepatic antioxidant redox system | Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences | Full Text [WWW Document], n.d. URL (accessed 4.29.23).

Uroko, R.I., Agbafor, A., Egba, S.I., Nwuke, C.P., Kalu-Kalu, S.N. (2021). Evaluation of antioxidant activities and hematological effects of Asystasia gangetica leaf extract in monosodium glutamate-treated rats. Lek. Sirovine 41, 5–11.

Uroko, R.I., Ogwo, E.U., Nweje-Anyalowu, P., Obiwuru, I., Aaron, C.F., Mba, O.J. (2023). Ameliorative potentials of Aju Mbaise extract (AME) on Dutasteride induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury in rats. J. Med. Herbs 13, 17–26.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 355 | views : 216


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Majalah Obat Tradisional

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

©Majalah Obat Tradisional (Traditional Medicine Journal)
 ISSN 2406-9086
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Gadjah Mada