Role of Leaders’ Emotional Labor toward Leader’s Job Satisfaction and Emotional Exhaustion: Moderating Role of Psychological Capital

Sania Noreen, Qasim Ali Nisar, Shahbaz Haider, Tan Fee Yean
(Submitted 2 February 2020)
(Published 26 February 2021)


Everyone has to manage the emotions during their interaction with others; similar case is with the leaders in organizations. Leaders’ actively and continually regulate their emotional state. The crucial role of emotions in interactional process as well in decision making triggers leaders to be vigilant about their emotional labor strategies. Thus emotional labor has become an emerging construct in leadership domain. This study has collected data from 250 doctors working in private and public hospitals in Gujranwala. Findings demonstrated leaders’ deep acting as well as displaying natural emotions are positively associated with job satisfaction and negatively associated with leaders’ emotional exhaustion. Moreover, surface acting has significant positive relationship with leaders’ emotional exhaustion and negative relationship with leaders’ job satisfaction. Psychological capital significantly moderated the relationship between leaders’ emotional labor strategies, leaders’ job satisfaction and leaders’ emotional exhaustion.


Emotional labor, surface acting, deep acting, display of genuine emotions, job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, psychological capital

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/gamaijb.53996


Abraham, R. (1998). Emotional dissonance in organizations: Antecedents, consequences, and moderators. Genetic, social, and general psychology monographs, 124(2), 229. Adelmann, P. K. (1995). Emotional labor as a potential source of job stress. Ahmad, S., Nisar, Q. A., Imran, A., Waqas, M., & Malik, S. (2019). Linking leader's emotional labour strategies with leader's attitude: an effective approach towards leadership. Middle East Journal of Management, 6(2), 139-153. Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1993). Emotional labor in service roles: The influence of identity. Academy of management review, 18(1), 88-115. Avey, J. B., Reichard, R. J., Luthans, F., & Mhatre, K. H. (2011). Meta‐analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Human resource development quarterly, 22(2), 127-152. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control: Macmillan. Brotheridge, C. M., & Grandey, A. A. (2002). Emotional labor and burnout: Comparing two perspectives of “people work”. Journal of vocational behavior, 60(1), 17-39. Cheung, F., Tang, C. S.-k., & Tang, S. (2011). Psychological capital as a moderator between emotional labor, burnout, and job satisfaction among school teachers in China. International Journal of Stress Management, 18(4), 348. Diefendorff, J. M., Croyle, M. H., & Gosserand, R. H. (2005). The dimensionality and antecedents of emotional labor strategies. Journal of vocational behavior, 66(2), 339-357. Diefendorff, J. M., & Greguras, G. J. (2009). Contextualizing emotional display rules: Examining the roles of targets and discrete emotions in shaping display rule perceptions. Journal of Management, 35(4), 880-898. Edwards, J. R., & Rothbard, N. P. (1999). Work and family stress and well-being: An examination of person-environment fit in the work and family domains. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 77(2), 85-129. Friedman, H. S., & Miller-Herringer, T. (1991). Nonverbal display of emotion in public and in private: Self-monitoring, personality, and expressive cues. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(5), 766. Gardner, W. L., Fischer, D., & Hunt, J. G. J. (2009). Emotional labor and leadership: A threat to authenticity? The Leadership Quarterly, 20(3), 466-482. Ghazzawi, I. (2008). Job satisfaction antecedents and consequences: A new conceptual framework and research agenda. The Business Review, 11(2), 1-10. Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotional regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of occupational health psychology, 5(1), 95. Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of general psychology, 2(3), 271-299. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Confirmatory factor analysis. In Multivariate Data Analysis. Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). 60-78. Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-152. Halbesleben, J. R. (2006). Sources of social support and burnout: a meta-analytic test of the conservation of resources model. Journal of applied Psychology, 91(5), 1134. Halbesleben, J. R., & Buckley, M. R. (2004). Burnout in organizational life. Journal of Management, 30(6), 859-879. Hayyat, U., Nisar, Q. A., Imran, M., & Ikram, M. (2017). Consequences of emotional labor in health sector of Pakistan. International Journal For Research In Business, Management And Accounting (ISSN: 2455-6114), 3(6), 64-79. Hochschild, A. R. (1979). Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. American journal of sociology, 85(3), 551-575. Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart. Berkeley. In: CA: University of California Press. Humphrey, R. H., Pollack, J. M., & Hawver, T. (2008). Leading with emotional labor. Journal of managerial psychology, 23(2), 151-168. Hur, W.-M., Rhee, S.-Y., & Ahn, K.-H. (2016). Positive psychological capital and emotional labor in Korea: the job demands-resources approach. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(5), 477-500. Judge, T. A., Woolf, E. F., & Hurst, C. (2009). Is emotional labor more difficult for some than for others? A multilevel, experience‐sampling study. Personnel Psychology, 62(1), 57-88. Kotrlik, J., & Higgins, C. (2001). Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size in survey research appropriate sample size in survey research. Information technology, learning, and performance journal, 19(1), 43. Lee, Y. H., & Chelladurai, P. (2018). Emotional intelligence, emotional labor, coach burnout, job satisfaction, and turnover intention in sport leadership. European Sport Management Quarterly, 18(4), 393-412. Luthans, F. (2002). The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 23(6), 695-706. Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., Norman, S. M., & Combs, G. M. (2006). Psychological capital development: toward a micro‐intervention. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 27(3), 387-393. Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2007). Emerging positive organizational behavior. Journal of Management, 33(3), 321-349. Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of organizational behavior, 2(2), 99-113. Mishra, S. K. (2013). Perceived external prestige and employee outcomes: Mediation effect of organizational identification. Corporate Reputation Review, 16(3), 220-233. Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C. (1996). The dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of emotional labor. Academy of management review, 21(4), 986-1010. Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C. (1997). Managing emotions in the workplace. Journal of managerial issues, 9(3), 257. Nisar, Q. A., Othman, N., & Kamil, B. A. M. (2018a). Leaders’ Emotional Labor Strategies and Wellbeing: Does Perceived Organizational Justice Mediates the Relationship. Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 6(1), 82-98. Nisar, Q. A., Othman, N., & Kamil, B. A. M. (2018b). Leaders’ Emotions and Followers’ Behaviors: A New Perspective with Perceived Emotional Sincerity. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN BUSINESS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, 8(9). Oke, A. E., Ogunsami, D. R., & Ogunlana, S. (2012). Establishing a common ground for the use of structural equation modelling for construction related research studies. Construction economics and building, 12(3), 89-94. Ottenbacher, M. C., & Harrington, R. J. (2010). Strategies for achieving success for innovative versus incremental new services. Journal of Services Marketing, 24(1), 3-15. Pakistan Medical Association Gujranwala. (2017). Voter list 2018/19. Retrieved from Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (2004). Strengths of character and well-being. Journal of social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 603-619. Rathi, N., Bhatnagar, D., & Mishra, S. K. (2013). Effect of emotional labor on emotional exhaustion and work attitudes among hospitality employees in India. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 12(3), 273-290. Roberts, L. M. (2007). From Proving to Becoming: How Positive Relationships Create a Context for Self-Discovery and Self-Actualization. Rutner, P., & Riemenschneider, C. K. (2015). The Impact of Emotional Labor and Conflict-Management Style on Work Exhaustion of Information Technology Professionals. CAIS, 36, 13. Seligman, M. (1998). Positive Social Science. APA Monitor, 29, 2, 5. In. Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., Rawsthorne, L. J., & Ilardi, B. (1997). Trait self and true self: Cross-role variation in the Big-Five personality traits and its relations with psychological authenticity and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(6), 1380. Siu, O.-L., Hui, C. H., Phillips, D. R., Lin, L., Wong, T.-w., & Shi, K. (2009). A study of resiliency among Chinese health care workers: Capacity to cope with workplace stress. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(5), 770-776. Smith, K., & Kendall, L. (1969). The measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement: A strategy for the study of attitudes. Chicago: Raud McNally. Snyder, C. R. (2000). Handbook of hope: Theory, measures, and applications: Academic press. Spector, P. E. (1985). Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey. American journal of community psychology, 13(6), 693-713. Spector, P. E. (1997). The Nature of Job Satisfaction. In M. Flemming (Ed.), Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences: SAGE Publications, Inc. Tan, F. Y. (2010). Career planning, individual's personality traits, HRM practices as determinants to individual career success: The role of career strategies as mediator. Universiti Utara Malaysia, Torland, M. (2013). Emotional labour and the job satisfaction of adventure tour leaders in Australia. Wang. (2011). What role does leaders' emotional labor play in effective leadership? An empirical examination. Wang, Seibert, S. E., & Boles, T. L. (2011). Chapter 1 synthesizing what we know and looking ahead: a meta-analytical review of 30 years of emotional labor research. In What Have We Learned? Ten Years On (pp. 15-43): Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Wang, Q., Bowling, N. A., & Eschleman, K. J. (2010). A meta-analytic examination of work and general locus of control. Journal of applied Psychology, 95(4), 761. Wharton, A. S. (1993). The affective consequences of service work: Managing emotions on the job. Work and occupations, 20(2), 205-232. Wu, X., & Shie, A.-J. (2017). The relationship between customer orientation, emotional labour and job burnout. Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management, 8(2), 54-76. Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Oerlemans, W. G., & Koszucka, M. (2018). Need for recovery after emotional labor: Differential effects of daily deep and surface acting. Journal of organizational behavior, 39(4), 481-494. Yamane, T. (1973). Statistics: An introductory analysis. Yoo, J. (2016). Perceived customer participation and work engagement: the path through emotional labor. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 34(7), 1009-1024.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.