Environmental Impacts Management of the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival

https://doi.org/10.22146/gamajts.v2i2.56851

Anindya Kenyo Larasti(1*)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The sustainability of music festivals is an urgent issue that must be discussed. Without careful consideration of environmental impacts, the short-term economic gain becomes a long-term fiasco. Coachella, the second-largest music festival in the US and the highest-grossing festival in the world, is possible to harm the environment. It provides pressure by bringing a hundred thousands of people at the same time and place. If the festival damages the environment, it will be costly and taking a long time to preserve the ecosystem. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the management of environmental impacts to recognise how a music festival could increase its environmental sustainability. The analysis ascertained qualitatively by using an approach of energy usage, waste generated, and transport emission produced (Fredline et al., 2005).

The result shows that much work has been done by Coachella organisers to reduce the environmental impact of the music festival they organised. First, the energy used in Coachella does not have too much impact on the environment because Coachella has applied sustainable energy framework. Next, in term of waste management, Coachella has been trying to minimise waste generated during the event by organising a massive waste sorting program. It can be said that the program has been quite successful at managing waste. Last, emissions produced from transport have the worst impact on the environment because it directly contributes to climate change. Furthermore, the organisers cannot control the number of vehicles used by attendees because this subject is at the preference of each attendee, and the organiser cannot fully control it. 


Keywords


Coachella, music festival, environmental impact, sustainable event

Full Text:

PDF


References

A Greener Festival. (2008). A Survey of What Music Fans Think of Green Issues at Live Music Events. Research by Buckinghamshire New University for A Greener Festival. [Online] Available at: http://www.agreenerfestival.com/newsletters/ Music%20Fans%20Want%20Green%20Events. pdf [Accessed 26th May 2019].

Becken, S., Simmons, D. G., and Frampton, C. (2003). Energy use associated with different travel choices. Tourism Management, 24, 267-277.

Boggia, A., Massei, G., Paolotti, L. Rocchi, L. and Schiavi, F. (2018). A model for measuring the environmental sustainability of events. Journal of Environmental Management, 206, 836-845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.11.057

Boo, S. and Busser, J. A. (2006). Impact Analysis of a Tourism Festival on Tourist’s Destination Images and Satisfaction. Event Management, 9, 165-181. https://doi.org/10.3727/152599506776771562

Bostock, B. (2019). Glastonbury and Coachella are the 2 most famous music festivals in the world – here’s how they compare. [Online] Available at: https:// www.insider.com/glastonbury-and-coachella-inphotos-which-festival-is-better-2019-7 [Accessed 16th June 2019].

Bottrill, C., Lye, G., Boykoff, M. and Liverman, D. (2007). UK Music Industry Greenhouse Gas Emissions for 2007. Oxford: Oxford UniversityEnvironmental Change Institute.

Bowdin, G., Allen, J., O’Toole, W., Harris, R. and McDonnell, I. (2011). Event Management. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Case, R. (2013). Events and The Environment. New York: Routledge.

Coachella. 2019. Art of Recycling – Trashed. [Online] Available at: https://www.coachella.com/ sustainability/ [Accessed 18th June 2019].

Daisa, A. and Breneman, B. (2017). FESTatistics: Festivals by The Numbers. [Online] Available at: http://www.festforums.com/newblog-1/2017/5/31/festatistics-festivals-by-thenumbers [Accessed 5th May 2019].

DEFRA. (2010). Air Pollution: Action in Changing Climate. London: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

Departement of Environmental Affairs. (2014). Environmental Impact Assessment and Management for South Africa. Pretoria: Departement of Environment Affairs and Tourism (DEAT).

Ejaz, N., Akhtar, N., Nisar, H. and Naeem, U. A. (2010). Environmental impacts of improper solid waste

management in developing countries: a case study of Rawalpindi City. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 142, 379-387.

Energy Information Administration (EIA). (2016). Monthly energy review. Washington DC: US Department of Energy. [Online] Available at: http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/ [Accessed 16th July 2019].

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2019). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks 1990-2017. Washington DC: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Ferdinand, N. (2017). Events Management: An International Approach. Los Angeles: SAGE Publication.

Forde, E. (2015). The cost of staging a music festival: ‘We spent £30,000 on the waste’. [Online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/music/2015/ jul/09/cost-of-staging-music-festival [Accessed 23rd August 2019].

Fouracre, P. (2011). Environmental Impact Assessment and Management. [Online] Available at: https:// www.ssatp.org/sites/ssatp/files/publications/ HTML/rural_transport/knowledge_base/English/ Module%205/5_4a%20Environmental%20 Impact%20Assessment.pdf [Accessed 3rd November 2019].

Fredline, L., Raybould, M., Jago, L. and Deery, M. (2005). Triple Bottom Line Event Evaluation: A proposed framework for holistic event evaluation. In Proceedings of International Event Research Conference 2005. Lindfield: Australian Centre for Event Management.

Frith, S. (2007). Live music matters’. Scottish Music Review, 1, 1-17. Gellenbeck, T., Hoyt, S., Lubenow, C. and Tack, H. (2018). How to Incorporate Recycling & Composting into Your Special Event. Arizona: Arizona Recycling Coalition.

Getz, D. (2010). The nature and scope of festival studies. International Journal of Event Management Research, 5, 1-47.

Getz, D. (2009). Policy for sustainable and responsible festivals and events: institutionalization of a new paradigm. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 1, 61–78. https:// doi.org/10.1080/19407960802703524

Getz, D. (1997). Event management and event tourism. New York: Cognizant Communication Corp.

Gibson, C. R. and Wong, C. (2011). Greening Rural Festivals: Ecology, Sustainability and HumanNature Relations. In C. R. Gibson &J. Connell (Eds.). Festival Places - Revitalising Rural Australia, 92-105. Bristol: Channel View Publications.

Glasset, M. (2014). Greening The Festival Industry: Using the Triple Bottom Line Approach to Promote Sustainability in Music Events. Undergraduate Honors Theses. Boulder: University of Colorado.

Glastonbury Festival. (2018). Glastonbury ticket info. [Online] Available at: https://www. glastonburyfestivals.co.uk/information/tickets/ [Accessed 26th July 2019].

Global Inheritance. (2015). Recycling. [Online] Available at: https://www.globalinheritance.org/programs/ recycling [Accessed 20th June 2019].

Global Inheritance. (2011). Programs Energy FACTory. [Online] Available at: http://archive. globalinheritance.org/programs/read/14/energyfactory [Accessed 13th July 2019].

Global Inheritance. (2010). Coachella 10for1. [Online] Available at: https://hiveminer.com/Tags/ coachella%2Crecycle [Accessed 18th July 2019].

Goldblatt, S. D. (2012). The complete guide to greener meetings and events. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Goorah, S., Esmyot, M. L. I. and Boojhawon, R. (2009). The health impact of non-hazardous solid waste disposal in a community: the case of the Mare Chicose landfill in Mauritius. Journal of Environmental Health, 72, 48-54.

Gossling, S. (2002). Human-environmental relations with tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 29, 539-556.

Haider, A. (2019). From Woodstock to Coachella: The ultimate music festivals. [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20190405from-woodstock-to-coachella-the-ultimate-lostweekends [Accessed 5th May 2019].

Hayden, N. (2019). Galilee Center received 3 trucks filled with donations from Coachella festival. [Online] Available at: https://eu.desertsun.com/ story/news/2019/04/19/coachella-fest-donates3-truck-loads-galilee-center/3525943002/ [Accessed 15th June 2019].

Heal, A. (2018). Glastonbury tickets for 2019 sell out in half an hour. . [Online] Available at: https://www. theguardian.com/music/2018/oct/07/glastonburytickets-2019-sell-out-in-half-an-hour [Accessed 9th July 2019].

Holzman, D. C. (2011). Mountaintop removal mining: Digging into community health concern. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119, A476-A483. https://doi:10.1289/ehp.119-a47

Hottle, T. A., Bilec, M. M., Brown, N. R. and Landis, A. E. (2015). Toward zero waste: composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events. Waste Management. 38, 86-94. https://doi.

org/10.1016/j.wasman.2015.01.019

Jessie. 2012. Earth Day and Coachella; How ‘Green’ is This Festival? [Online] Available at: https://www. pollstar.com/News/coachella-is-once-again-thehighest-grossing-festival-in-the-world-134155 [Accessed 15th June 2019].

Jones, M. (2018). Sustainable Event Management: A Practical Guide. New York: Routledge.

Kennedy, C. S. (2017). Coachella generates 107 tons of solid waste each day. About 20% of it gets recycled. [Online] Available at: https:// eu.desertsun.com/story/life/entertainment/music/ coachella/2017/04/21/coachella-generates107-tons-solid-waste-each-day-20-getsrecycled/305682001/ [Accessed 12th June 2019].

Laing, J. and Frost, W. (2010). How green was my festival: Exploring challenges and opportunities associated with staging green events. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 29, 261-267. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2009.10.009

Lazarte, R. (2014). Music to Our Ears: Outdoor Festivals Turn Energy Efficiency Way Up. [Online] Available at: https://www.ase.org/blog/ music-our-ears-outdoor-festivals-turn-energyefficiency-way [Accessed 12th May 2019].

Mair, J. (2018). The Routledge Handbook of Festival. New York: Routledge.

Mair, J. and Jago, L. K. (2009). Business events and climate change. A scoping study. Melbourne: Centre for Tourism and Service Research Victoria University.

Marchini, B., Fleming, P. and Maughan, C. (2013). Reducing Electricity Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Music Festivals. [Online] Available at: http://www.powerful-thinking.org.uk/site/ wp-content/uploads/Electricity-at-Festivalssummary-findings-March-2013.pdf [Accessed 10th July 2019].

Meridian Consultants. (2016). Addendum to the Final Environmental Impact Report for the Music Festival Plan. California: Meridian Consultants.

Paul, R. (2011). Coachella’s Human Powered DJ Booth Blasts Renewable Blips and Bleeps. [Online] Available at: https://inhabitat.com/coachellashuman-powered-dj-booth-blasts-renewableblips-and-bleeps/hamsterwheel2 [Accessed 19th June 2019].

Pittman, S. (2018). Coachella is Once Again the Highest Grossing Festival in the World. [Online] Available at: https://www.pollstar.com/News/coachella-isonce-again-the-highest-grossing-festival-in-theworld-134155 [Accessed 5th May 2019].

Powerful Thinking. (2015). The Show Must Go On Report. [Online] Available at: http://www.powerful-thinking.org.uk/site/wp-content/ uploads/TheShowMustGoOnReport18..3.16.pdf [Accessed 8th June 2019].

Rendon, F. (2018). Looking at The Growth of Festivals Through Pollstar’s Charts. [Online] Available at: https://www.pollstar.com/News/lookingat-the-growth-of-festivals-through-pollstarscharts-134941 [Accessed 4th May 2019].

Richter, F. (2019). The Largest Music Festival in the World. [Online] Available at: https://www. statista.com/chart/17757/total-attendance-ofmusic-festivals/ [Accessed 5th May 2019].

Rodrigue, J. (2017). The Geography of Transport Systems. New York: Routledge.

Rysz, A. (2018). Festival Fun at Coachella Without Costing Mother Earth. [Online] Available at: http://www.refinedtravellers.com/festival-funat-coachella-without-costing-mother-earth/ [Accessed 12th June 2019].

Scrucca, F., Severi, C., Galvan, N. and Brunori, A. (2016). A new method to assess the sustainability performance of events: Application to the 2014 World Orienteering Championship. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 56, 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2015.08.002 T in the Park. (2016). Thank you. [Online] Available at: http://www.tinthepark.com/ [Accessed 23rd August 2019].

UNWTO. (2018). UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2018 Edition. UNWTO. Veal, A. J. (2006). Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism: A Practical Guide. Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson Education.

Vonow, B. (2017). Glastonbury clean-up costing £785,000 and lasting six weeks begins as 200,00 festival-goers head home leaving behind mounds of rubbish. [Online] Available at: https:// www.thesun.co.uk/news/3883718/glastonbury2017-clean-up-pictures-rubbish-after-festival/ [Accessed 20th June 2019].

Waitt, G. (2008). Urban festivals: geographies of hype, helplessness and hope. Geography Compass, 2(2): 513–537.

Whitehouse, L. (2015). Carbon-chella. [Online] Available at: https://lwhiteh2.wordpress. com/2015/05/02/carbon-chella/ [Accessed 13th June 2019].References

Brommer, B., Sidharta, A., Budihardjo, E., Siswanto, A., Montens, A. B., Soewarno, S. S., & Stevens, T. 1995. Semarang, Beeld van een stad. Nederland: Asia Major. Byrne, D., Brayshaw, H. and Ireland, T. 2003. Social significance: a discussion paper. New South Wales: National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Gadamer, Hans Georg. 1996. Truth and Method (2nd rev. ed., Joel Weinshemer& Donald Marshall, Trans.). New York: Continuum.

Hall, S. 1997. “The Work of Representation” in Stuart Hall (Ed.) Representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices Vol. 2. London: Sage Publications, pp. 13-74.

Hodder, Ian. 1998. “The past as passion and play Catalhoyuk as a site of conflict in the construction of multiple pasts” in Lynn Meskell (Ed.) Archaeology Under Fire: Nationalism, Politics and Heritage in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. London: Routledge, pp. 124-139.

Kelly, Catherine. 2009. “Heritage” in Thrift, Nigel and Kitchin, Rob, (Eds.) The International Encyclopedia of Human Geography. London: Elsevier, pp. 91-97.

Kinsella, E. A. 2006. “Hermeneutics and and Critical Hermeneutics: Exploring Possibilities Within the Art of Interpretation” in Forum Qualitative Socialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research Vol. 7. No. 3, pp. 13-20.

Klinkhamer & Ouendag. 1916. “Het Administraiegebouw der Nederlandsch-Indische Spoorweg Maatschappij te Semarang”. Nederlands-Indie Oud en Nieuw vol 1, Issue 1. pp. 23-31.

Marshall, C., & Rossman, G.B. 2014. Designing Qualitative Research. Sage Publications. Mason, R. 2002. “Assessing Valuies in Conservation Planning: Methodoligical Issues and Choices” in Marta de la Torre (Ed.) Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage. California: The Getty Conservation Institutem, pp.5-49.

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. 2013. Qualitative data analysis. Sage Publications. Nuryanti, W. 1996. “Heritage and Postmodern Tourism”. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(2), pp.249-260.

Odman, P.J. 1988. “Hermeneutics” in John P Keeves inEducational research methodology and measurement: An international handbook. New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 63-70.

Puczkó, L.A.S.Z.L.O. 2006. “Interpretation in cultural tourism” in Smith, M. & Robinson, M (ed.) Cultural Tourism in a Changing World: Politics, Participation and (re) presentation. Bristol: Channel View Publications, pp.227-244.

Rátz, T. 2006. “Interpretation in the house of terror, Budapest” in Smith, M. & Robinson, M (ed.) Cultural tourism in a changing world: Politics, participation and (re) presentation. Bristol: Channel View Publications, pp.244-56.

Shanks, M., & Tilley, C. Y. 1992. Re-constructing archaeology: theory and practice. London: Routledge.

Sudarmadi, T. 2014. Between colonial legacies and grassroots movements: exploring cultural heritage practice in the Ngadha and Manggarai Region of Flores.Dissertation, Vrije Univeristy Amsterdam.

Throsby, D. 1999. Cultural capital. Journal of cultural economics, 23(1-2), pp.3-12.

Vecco, M. 2010. A definition of cultural heritage: From the tangible to the intangible. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 11(3), pp.321-332.

Wright, A.C. and Lennon, J.J. 2007. Selective interpretation and eclectic human heritage in Lithuania. Tourism Management, 28(2), pp.519529.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/gamajts.v2i2.56851

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 14662 | views : 11300

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Gadjah Mada Journal of Tourism Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Web
Analytics View My Stats

Print ISSN: 2621-9522 | Online ISSN: 2621-9948
Copyright © 2024 Gadjah Mada Journal of Tourism Studies, Office of Journal & Publishing, Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada