Assessing the Spatial-Temporal Land use Change and Encroachment Activities Due to Flood Hazard in North Coast of Central Java, Indonesia

Imam Setyo Hartanto(1*), Rini Rachmawati(2)

(1) Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, West Papua
(2) Faculty of Geography, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author


Demak is known as the second largest region suffering land use change in Java’s North Coast. The topographic condition in downstream affects this area becomes susceptible with flood hazard. This research aims to assess the interactions between flooding, land use change and encroachment activities in Mijen and Wedung sub districts, Demak region, Central Java, Indonesia. This research combines the Driving Force, Pressure, State, Impact and Response (DPSIR) analysis. The supervised classification by Maximum Likelihood of time series Landsat images (2000, 2009 and 2014) was chosen for land cover analysis. The land use change shows that paddy field area descended almost 6%, mangrove forest fall 79% meanwhile settlement grown up almost double in 2000-2014. The result of overall accuracy assessment is 78.23%. The DPSIR result shows that land use change not too affect the flood events but floods influence land use pattern in north and south area of Mijen and Wedung.




Flood; Land Use Change; Encroachment; DPSIR

Full Text:



Agyemang, I., McDonald, A., & Carver, S. (2007). Application of the DPSIR Framework to Environmental Degradation and Assessment in Northern Ghana. Natural Resources Forum, 31(3), 212–225.

Anderson, J. R., Hardy, E. E., Roach, J. T., Witmer, R. E., & Peck, D. L. (1976). A Land Use And Land Cover Classification System For Use With Remote Sensor Data. A Revision of the Land Use Classification System as Presented in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 671, 964, 41.

Artur, L., & Hilhorst, D. (2014). Land Use Policy Floods , resettlement and land access and use in the lower Zambezi , Mozambique. Land Use Policy, 36, 361–368.

BAPPEDA. (2009). Revisi Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Kabupaten Demak Tahun 2010-2030. Demak.

Benini, L., Bandini, V., Marazza, D., & Contin, A. (2010). Assessment of land use changes through an indicator-based approach : A case study from the Lamone river basin in Northern Italy, 10, 4–14.

BNPB. (2014). Data Kejadian Bencana Banjir. Retrieved July 30, 2014, from

Cao, Y., Zhou, W., Wang, J., & Yuan, C. (2011). Spatial-Temporal Pattern and Differences of Land Use Changes in The Three Gorges Reservoir Area of China During 1975-2005. Journal of Mountain Science, 8(4), 551–563.

Childs, C. (2004). Interpolating Surfaces in ArcGIS Spatial Analyst. ArcUser.

Ding, H., Wang, R.-C., Wu, J.-P., Zhou, B., Shi, Z., & Ding, L.-X. (2007). Quantifying Land Use Change in Zhejiang Coastal Region, China Using Multi-Temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ Images. Pedosphere, 17(6), 712–720.

El-Raey, M., Fouda, Y., & Gal, P. (2000). GIS for Environmental Assessment of The Impacts of Urban Encroachment on Rosetta Region, Egypt. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 60(2), 217–233.

Genxu, W., Yu, Z., Guimin, L., & Lin, C. (2006). Impact of land-use change on hydrological processes in the Maying River basin , China, 49(10), 1098–1110.

Greene, R. P., & Harlin, J. M. (1995). Threat to High Market Value Agricultural Lands from Urban Encroachment: A National and Regional Perspecitve. The Social Science Journal, 32(2), 137–155.

Guo, L., Wang, D., Qiu, J., Wang, L., & Liu, Y. (2009). Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Land Use Change Along the Bohai Rim in China During 1985-2005. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 19(5), 568–576.

Gupta, S., & Roy, M. (2012). Land Use / Land Cover classification of an urban area- A case study of Burdwan Municipality, India, 2(4), 1014–1026.

Kagalou, I., Leonardos, I., Anastasiadou, C., & Neofytou, C. (2012). The DPSIR Approach for an Integrated River Management Framework. A Preliminary Application on a Mediterranean Site (Kalamas River -NW Greece). Water Resources Management, 26(6), 1677–1692.

Kesbanglinmas (Ed.). (2007). Laporan Akhir Penelitian Penanganan Bencana Alam di Daerah Rawan Bencana di Kabupaten Demak. Demak: Pemerintah Kabupaten Demak.

Liu, J., Wang, S., & Li, D. (2014). The Analysis of the Impact of Land-Use Changes on Flood Exposure of Wuhan in Yangtze River Basin , China, (28), 2507–2522.

Mustopa, Z. (2011). Analisis Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Alih Fungsi Lahan Pertanian di Kabupaten Demak. Diponegoro University. Retrieved from

Parker, D. J. (1995). Floodplain development policy in England and Wales. Applied Geography, 15(4), 341–363.

Pirrone, N., Trombino, G., Cinnirella, S., Algieri, a., Bendoricchio, G., & Palmeri, L. (2005). The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) approach for integrated catchment-coastal zone management: Preliminary application to the Po catchment-Adriatic Sea coastal zone system. Regional Environmental Change, 5(2–3), 111–137.

Rachmawati, R., & Budiarti, C. V. (2016). Use of Space and the Need for Planning in the Disaster-Prone Area of Code River, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Geography, 48(2), 178–190.

Richards, J. A., & Jia, X. (2006). Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis (4th ed.). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Shalaby, A., & Tateishi, R. (2007). Remote sensing and GIS for mapping and monitoring land cover and land-use changes in the Northwestern coastal zone of Egypt. Applied Geography, 27(1), 28–41.

WMO-GWP. (2007). The Role of Land-Use Planning in Flood Management - A Tool for Integrated Flood Management. WMO/GWP Associated Programme on Flood Management.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 3121 | views : 2868


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Indonesian Journal of Geography

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 225/E/KPT/2022, Vol 54 No 1 the Year 2022 - Vol 58 No 2 the Year 2026 (accreditation certificate download)

ISSN 2354-9114 (online), ISSN 0024-9521 (print)