Integrated Framework for Identification of Polluted Zones in Coastal Areas of Thiruvallur District of Tamil Nadu (India)

Kishan Singh Rawat(1*)

(1) Centre for Remote Sensing and Geo-Informatics Sathyabama University, Chennai, India
(*) Corresponding Author


In this research work, hydro-geochemical characteristics were determined from twenty groundwater samples and classified into water quality zones on the basis of the World Health Organization (WHO 2006) using inverse distance weighted interpolation technique. Groundwater samples were analyzed with respect to calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), HCO3, total nitrate (NO2+NO3ˉ), chloride (Cl−), sulphate (SO42−), total dissolved solids (TDS), hydrogen ion concentration (pH) and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured form groundwater samples. The water quality indices (WQI1 and NPI = WQI2) were used to categorize the water. Water Quality Index (WQI) value suggest that the 65% groundwater samples (excellent + good) are safe for drinking uses and 35% groundwater samples (very poor + poor) needs treatment before consumptive uses from WQI1. Further, NPI (WQI2), shows 40% and 60% of groundwater falls under good and poor condition respectively. The findings highlight that the groundwater of few areas requires some degree of treatment before consumptive uses.


Sea water intrusion; Geophysical survey; Geochemical analysis; Hydro-geochemical characteristics; Coastal aquifer

Full Text:



Amin A, Fazal S, Mujtaba A & Singh SK. (2014). Effects of land transformation on water quality of Dal lake, Srinagar, India. J Indian Soc Remote Sens. 42:119–128.

Anim AK, Duodu GO & Ahialey EK. (2011). Assessment of surface water quality: The perspectives of the Weija dam, Ghana. International Journal of Chemistry, 3(2): 32-39

APHA. (1998). The standard method for the examination of water and wastewater (20th Edition). American Public Health Association, Washington, USA

Avishek K., Pathak G., Nathawat M. S., Jha U., & Kumari N., (2010), Water-quality assessment of Majhiaon block of Garwa district in Jharkhand with a special focus on fluoride analysis, Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 167, pp 617–623.

Bharose R, Singh SK & Srivastava PK. (2013). Heavy metals pollution in soil-water-vegetation continuum irrigated with groundwater and untreated sewage. Bull Environ Sci Res. 2:1–8.

Bordalo, A.A., W. Nilsumranchit & K. Chalermwat (2001). Water quality and uses of the Bangpakong river (Eastern Thailand). Water Research, 35(15): 3635-3642.

Brown, R. M., McClelland, N. I., Deininger, R. A & Tozer, R. (1970). A Water Quality Index -Do we Dare?. Water and Sewage Works, October.

Chaudhary MP, Uddin S, Singh SK & Singh P. (2013). Statistical analysis for presence of chloride in water at different locations of upper lake in Madhaya Pradesh state of India. Int J Math Arch. 4:35–37.

Cobbina S. J., Anyidoho L. Y., Nyame F. & Hodgson I. O. A., (2010), Water quality status of dugouts from five districts in Northern Ghana: implications for sustainable water resources management in a water-stressed tropical savannah environment, Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 167, pp 405–416.

Gajbhiye S, Singh SK & Sharma SK.  (2015). Assessing the Effects of Different Land Use on Water Qualify using Multi-temporal Landsat Data in edited book Resource Management and Development Strategies: A Geographical Perspective. Edited by Siddiqui AR and Singh PK. Pravalika Publication, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. pp. 337 - 348 ISBN : 91 8-93-84292-21 -8

Gajbhiye S, Meshram C, Singh SK, Srivastava PK & Islam T. (2016). Precipitation trend analysis of Sindh River basin, India, from 102-year record (1901-2002). Atmos Sci Lett. 17:71–77.

Gautam SK, Tziritis E, Singh SK, Tripathi JK & Singh AK. (2018). Environmental monitoring of water resources with the use of PoS index: a case study from Subarnarekha River basin, India. Environmental Earth Sciences. 77:70.
Gupta LN, Avtar R, Kumar P, Gupta GS, Verma RL, Sahu N, Sil S, Jayaraman A, Roychowdhury K,

Mutisya E & Singh SK. (2014). A multivariate approach for water quality assessment of river Mandakini in Chitrakoot, India. J Water Resour Hydraul Eng. 3:22–29.
Jacintha TGA, Rawat KS, Mishra A & Singh SK. (2016). Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater of peninsular Indian region using multivariate statistical techniques. Appl Water Sci.7(6):3001–3013. doi/10.1007/s13201-016-0400-9

Kumar RP, Ranjan RK, Ramanathan AL, Singh SK & Srivastava PK. (2015). Geochemical modeling to evaluate the mangrove forest water. Arab J Geosci. 8:4687–4702.

Mohan, A., Singh, R. K., Panday, K., Kumar V. & Jain. V. (2007). Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 27(11), 1031.

Rawat K.S. Mishra A.K. & Sehgal V.K. (2012). Spatial Variability of Ground Water Quality in Mathura District (Uttar Pradesh, India) with Geostatistical Method. International Journal of Remote sensing Application, 2(1), 1-9.

Rawat K.S. Mishra A.K. & Sehgal V.K. (2013). Identification of Geospatial Variability of Fluoride contamination in Ground Water of Mathura District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 4(1), 117-122.

Rawat K.S. Tripathi V.K & Singh S.K. (2017b). Groundwater Quality Evaluation using Numerical Indices: a case study (Delhi, India), Sustainable Water Resources Management, DOI10.1007/s40899-017-0181-9

Rawat KS, Tripathi VK & Singh SK. (2017a). Groundwater quality evaluation using numerical indices: a case study (Delhi, India). Sustain. Water Resour. Manag.

Rawat K.S., Mishra A.K. & Singh S.K. (2017a). Mapping of Groundwater Quality Using Normalized Difference Dispersal Index of Dwarka Sub-city at Delhi National Capital of India, ISH Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 10.1080/09715010.2016.1277795.

Rawat KS, Mishra AK & Singh SK. (2017b). Mapping of groundwater quality using Normalized Difference Dispersal Index of Dwarka sub-city at Delhi National Capital of India. ISH J Hydraul Eng. 5010:1–12.Saeedi, M., O. Abessi, F. Sharifi and H. Meraji, 2010. Development of groundwater quality index. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 163: 327-335.

Rawat KS, Jeyakumar L, Singh SK & Tripathi VK. (2018a). Appraisal of groundwater with special reference to nitrate using statistical index approach. Groundwater for Sustainable Development.

Rawat KS, Jacintha TGA & Singh SK. (2018b). Hydro-chemical Survey and Quantifying Spatial Variations in Groundwater Quality in Coastal Region of Chennai, Tamilnadu, India – a case study. Indonesian Journal of Geography.  50 (1): 57 – 69.

Rawat KS & Singh SK. (2018c). Water Quality Indices and GIS-based evaluation of a decadal groundwater quality. Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes. 1-12.

Rawat KS, Singh SK, Jacintha TGA, Nemcˇic´-Jurec J & Tripathi VK. (2018d). Appraisal of long term groundwater quality of peninsular India using water quality index and fractal dimension. J. Earth Syst. Sci.

Singh S, Singh C, Kumar K, Gupta R & Mukherjee S. (2009). Spatial-temporal monitoring of groundwater using multivariate statistical techniques in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh, India. J Hydrol Hydromechanics. 57:45–54.

Singh SK, Singh CK & Mukherjee S. (2010). Impact of land-use and land-cover change on groundwater quality in the Lower Shiwalik hills: a remote sensing and GIS based approach. Cent Eur J Geosci. 2:124–131

Singh SK, Srivastava PK, Pandey AC & Gautam SK. (2013a). Integrated assessment of groundwater influenced by a confluence river system: concurrence with Remote Sensing and Geochemical Modelling. Water Resour Manag. 27 (12):4291–4313.

Singh SK, Srivastava  PK & Pandey AC. (2013b). Fluoride contamination mapping of groundwater in Northern India integrated with geochemical indicators and GIS. Water Sci Technol Water Supply. 13:1513–1523.

Singh SK, Srivastava PK, Singh D, Han D, Gautam SK & Pandey AC. (2015). Modeling groundwater quality over a humid subtropical region using numerical indices, earth observation datasets, and X-ray diffraction technique: a case study of Allahabad district, India. Environ Geochem Health. 37 (1):157–180.

Singh SK, Prafull Singh & Gautam SK. (2016). Appraisal of urban lake water quality through numerical index, multivariate statistics and earth observation data sets. Int J Environ Sci Technol. 13:445–456.

Singh H, Pandey R, Singh SK &  Shukla DN. (2017a). Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the sediment of the River Ghaghara, a major tributary of the River Ganga in Northern India. Applied Water Science.7(7):4 133-4149

Singh H, Singh D, Singh SK & Shukla DN. (2017b). Assessment of river water quality and ecological diversity through multivariate statistical techniques, and earth observation dataset of rivers Ghaghara and Gandak, India. Int J River Basin Manag. 15(3): 347-360., K., 2001. Environment hazards: Assessing risk and reducing disaster (3 ed., pp: 324). London: Routlege.

Thakur JK, Diwakar J & Singh SK. (2015). Hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater of Bhaktapur Municipality, Nepal. Environ Earth Sci. 74:4973–4988.

Thakur JK, Singh SK &  Ekanthalu VS. (2016). Integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and global positioning system techniques with hydrological modeling. Appl Water Sci.:1–14.

World Health Organization (2006).Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Recommendations, vol 1, 3rd edn. World Health Organization, Geneva.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 92 | views : 79


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Journal of Geography

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 30/E/KPT/2018, Vol 50 No 1 the Year 2018 - Vol 54 No 2 the Year 2022

ISSN 2354-9114 (online), ISSN 0024-9521 (print)