Determination of Groundwater Flow Pattern in the basement complex terrain of Ado-Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria

A. Akinola Oyedele(1*), Gbenga Olayanju(2), Taiwo Oyedele(3), Kehinde Oyedele(4), Taofeek Ewumi(5), Funmi Ogunlana(6)

(1) Department of Physics, Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti, Nigeria
(2) Department of Applied Geophysics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
(3) Geological Services, Ogun State Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Abeokuta, Nigeria
(4) INLANDS & Associates, Abeokuta, Nigeria
(5) Department of Physics, Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti, Nigeria
(6) Department of Physics, Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti, Nigeria
(*) Corresponding Author


Hydrostatic level sampling, geo-referencing and Geographic Information System were employed to delineate the major groundwater recharge / discharge zones, the groundwater flow direction and the groundwater divides in Ado-Ekiti metropolis with the objective of groundwater resource protection.  Static water level measurements were made from 108 hand – dug wells evenly distributed on a regional basis. The latitudes, longitudes and elevations above mean sea level of the well points were measured using the Global Positioning System. A mean value of 5.84 ± 2.35 m above mean sea level was observed for the depths to the static water level with a mean value of 408.27 ± 46.06 m above mean sea level for the groundwater head. The contour maps obtained enabled the delineation of the major groundwater recharge / discharge zones, the groundwater flow direction and the groundwater divides with the regional tendency of the underground flow approximately lying along the Northwest – Southeast direction and groundwater divides along the South – Eastern/ South – Western axes of the Central portion. Strict environmental ethics must be enforced around the groundwater recharge / discharge zones and flow directions in order to avoid groundwater contamination.


dumpsite; flow direction; groundwater head; leachates; water table

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