Urban Planning in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah using New Green Spaces Modelling through GIS Application


Nadiyah Mazi Aljohani(1*), Mokhtar Jaafar(2), Lam Kuok Choy(3)

(1) Geography Program, Centre for Research in Development, Social & Environment, UKM, Malaysia
(2) Geography Program, Centre for Research in Development, Social & Environment, UKM, Malaysia
(3) Geography Program, Centre for Research in Development, Social & Environment, UKM, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author


The present study investigated the new green spaces modelling in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah using GIS application. It adopted the mental health theory as a theoretical framework. The data of the study was collected through two data collection instruments, namely, questionnaire as well as interview. The quantitative data was analysed through SPSS software while the qualitative data collected from the interviews was qualitatively analysed using thematic content analysis. The findings of the study revealed the most suitable model for potential new green spaces using GIS analysis (descriptive summaries) for urban planning in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah is Quba (25.5%). Moreover, the most prominent challenge facing the design of a new green space in Al-Medinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia, is the weakness of the budget allocated to designing green spaces (86.7%). It is also shown that the most prominent benefits of designing new green spaces for the residents of Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah are the provision of seats and seating areas. Therefore, the participants stress the importance of taking into account the provision of seats and seating places when designing green spaces (93.3%). In terms of the potential of developing urban green spaces in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, the majority of the respondents believe that urban green spaces can be developed, to a large degree, in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah in the future. Therefore, the study recommends that urban green spaces should be developed in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah and the budget allocated to designing green spaces in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah should be also increased. This study could be considered as a guideline for future development that can be used by government in Saudi Arabia.


green spaces, urban planning, public parks, mental health, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah

Full Text:



Abebe, M. T. & Megento, T. L. (2017). Urban green space development using GIS-based multi-criteria analysis in Addis Ababa metropolis. Applied Geomatics, 9(4): 247-261.

Al-Ballaa, H., Comber, A. & Smith, C. (2012). Distribution Pattern Analysis of Green space in Al-Madinah Using GIS, GIS Research UK 20th annual Conference, 2, 11-13th April 2012, Lancaster, pp 161-169. 2.

Barbosa, O., Tratalos, J., Armsworth, P., Davies, R., Fuller, R., Johnson, P. and Gaston, K. (2007). Who benefits from access to green space? A case study from Sheffield, UK, Landscape and Urban Planning, 83(3):187-195.

Barton, J., Pretty, J. (2010). What is the best dose of nature and green exercise for improving mental health? A multi-study analysis, Environmental Science & Technology, 44(4):3947 – 3955.

Chiari, C. and Seeland, K., (2004), Are urban green spaces optimally distributed to act as places for social integration? Results of a geographical information system (GIS) approach for urban forestry research, Forest Policy and Economics, 6(6): 3-13.

Creswell, J. W. 2012. Educational research: Planning, conducting and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Educaton.

Hansen, R., Frantzeskaki, N., McPhearson, T., Rall, E., Kabisch, N., Kaczorowska, A., Kain, J.-H., Artmann, M., Pauleit, S. (2015). The uptake of the ecosystem services concept in planning discourses of European and American cities. Ecosyst. Serv.12, 228–246.

Lam, K. C., Ng, S. L., Hui, W. C., & Chan, P. K. (2005). Environ- mental quality of urban parks and open spaces in Hong Kong. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 111(4): 55-73.

McPhearson, T., Pickett, S.T.A., Grimm, N.B., Niemel, J., Alberti, M., Elmqvist, T., Weber, Dagmar, H., Juergen, B., Salman, Q. (2016). Advancing Urban Ecology toward a Science of Cities, BioScience, 55(3):198-212.

Metwaly, M., Abdalla, F., & Taha, A. I. (2021). Hydrogeophysical Study of Sub-Basaltic Alluvial Aquifer in the Southern Part of Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia. Sustainability, 13(17), 9841. MDPI AG. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13179841

Mobasheri, A., Pirotti, F. & Agugiaro, G. (2020). Open-source geospatial tools and technologies for urban and environmental studies. Open geospatial data, softw. stand. 5, 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40965-020-00078-2

Mytton, O., Townsend, N., Rutter, H. and Foster, C. (2012). Green space and physical activity: An observational study using Health Survey for England data, Health Place, 18(5)1034 – 1041. Neema, M.N., & Ohgai, A. (2013). Multitype green-space modeling for urban planning using GA and GIS. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 40(4): 447-473.

Panduro, T. E., & Veie, K. L. (2013). Classification and valuation of urban green spaces—A hedonic house price valuation. Landscape and Urban Planning. 120, 119-128.

Pauleit, S., Hansen, R., Rall, E.L., Zölch, T., Luz, A.C., Szaraz, L., Tosics, I., Vierikko, K. (2017). Land use and land cover change detection through remote sensing approach: A case study of Kodaikanal taluk, Tamil nadu. International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences, 1(2): 150-163.

Pojani, D., & Maci, G. (2015). The Detriments and Benefits of the Fall of Planning: The Evolution of Public Space in a Balkan Post-socialist Capital. Journal of Urban Design, 20(2): 251–272.

Public Health England (2020). Improving access to greenspace: A new review for 2020, PHE publications.

Rahnama, M., & Akbari, M. (2013). Analysis the principles and Dimensions of Urban Parks with point on green spaces in Mashhad city, Iran. American Journal of Engineering Research, 2(12): 136–143.

Rupprecht, C. D. D., & Byrne, J. A. (2015). Informal urban green space: A trilingual systematic review of its role for biodiversity and trends in the literature. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening,14(4): 883-908.http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2015.08.009

Safrilia, A. and Poerwoningsih, D. (2021). Green space as potential for forming a sustainable city, 3rd International Seminar on Livable Space, IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science.

The Report Saudi Arabia (2020). Available online at: https://www.sidf.gov.sa.

White M.P., Alcock I, Wheeler, B.W., Depledge, M.H. (2013). Would you be happier living in a greener urban area? A fixed-effects analysis of panel data. Psychol Sci 24:920–928

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijg.64991

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1925 | views : 1292


Copyright (c) 2021 Nadiyah Mazi Aljohani

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 225/E/KPT/2022, Vol 54 No 1 the Year 2022 - Vol 58 No 2 the Year 2026 (accreditation certificate download)

ISSN 2354-9114 (online), ISSN 0024-9521 (print)