Geochemical Fraction, Mobility And Bioavailability Of Lead In Unsaturated Soil Of Yogyakarta City, Indonesia

Saw Aung Zaw Aye(1*), Heru Hendrayana(2), Doni Prakasa Eka Putra(3), Tsutomo Sato(4)

(1) Geological Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University
(2) Geological Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University
(3) Geological Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University
(4) Laboratory of Environmental Geology, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University
(*) Corresponding Author


Lead (Pb) is one of common heavy metals found in
the soil of urban environment. In Yogyakarta City,
Indonesia, lead content in the soil was already reported by some researchers, however all of the report were only reveals the distribution of lead concentration in the soil. Therefore, this research paper aims to understand the geochemical fraction lead
in the soil of Yogyakarta City and assess the mobility and bioavailability of lead release to the environment. The soil sampling location is selected on Kotagede District, representing the oldest urban area of Yogyakarta city. A shallow bore hole was drill until about 7 m below the surface and soil/sediments were
sampled for each 1 m depth started from the surface. Six steps of sequential extraction procedures were carried out to assess the geochemical fraction of Pb for each of soil samples. The sequential extraction shows that the highest amount of Pb in the
soil of Yogyakarta City is found in amorphous iron
oxide, crystalline iron oxide and non residual fraction form of Pb. Based on the results of geochemical fraction, the mobility factor of lead can be calculated and reveals low mobility factor range from 0.4 to 3.3%. The mobility of lead is decreased from the surface to the deeper soil, on the other hand the bioavailability of Pb calculated from exchangeable and carbonate fraction is also show low risk of bioavailability. Therefore, it can be concluded that although Pb concentration is high in non-residual fraction, Pb is
in low risk condition due to its poor mobility and bioavailability. But, concern on lead contamination should be considered because if the concentration of Pb is enriched over the adsorption capacity of ironoxide, it can easily release to the environment and can impact to human in the future.
Keywords: Yogyakarta city, Lead, Sequential extraction, Geochemical fraction

Full Text:



Article Metrics

Abstract views : 869 | views : 1161


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Saw Aung Zaw Aye, Heru Hendrayana, Doni Prakasa Eka Putra, Tsutomo Sato

Journal of Applied Geology Indexed by:


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.