Interaksi Gen pada Beberapa Karakter Kualitatif Tomat (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

https://doi.org/10.22146/veg.67540

Arya Widura Ritonga(1*), Siti Marwiyah(2), Erin Puspitarini(3), Muhamad Syukur(4)

(1) Departemen Agronomy dan Hortikultura Fakultas Pertanian Institut Pertanian Bogor
(2) Departemen Agronomy dan Hortikultura Fakultas Pertanian Institut Pertanian Bogor
(3) 
(4) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Program pemuliaan tanaman dapat lebih efektif dan efisien jika terdapat informasi pewarisan sifat dari karakter yang akan dimuliakan. Namun, belum semua karakter kualitatif pada buah tomat diketahui pola pewarisan sifatnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh informasi tentang pewarisan sifat beberapa karakter kualitatif pada tanaman tomat. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada Januari – April 2020 di Kebun Percobaan IPB Leuwikopo, Bogor, Indonesia. Sebanyak 10 tanaman varietas Tora IPB, 10 tanaman genotype GIK serta 10 tanaman F1 (hasil persilangan Tora IPB x GIK) digunakan pada penelitian ini. Selain itu, juga digunakan sebanyak 185 tanaman populasi F2 (hasil selfing F1 Tora IPB x GIK) pada penelitian ini. Analisis data dilakukan menggunakan uji khi kuadrat dilakukan pada populasi F2 untuk menentukan rasio segregasi karakter kualitatif yang paling tepat. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa karakter posisi anak daun terhadap tangkai daun, bentuk ujung buah tomat, tinggi kelopak terhadap mahkota, dan karakter luas plasenta buah tomat dikendalikan oleh 2 gen dengan 2 alel per lokus. Tipe intraksi gen pada pewarisan karakter posisi anak daun terhadap tangkai daun dan bentuk ujung buah tomat yaitu epistasis dominan, sedangkan tipe interaksi gen pada pewarisan karakter tinggi kelopak terhadap mahkota dan karakter luas plasenta buah tomat berturut-turut adalah epistasis dominan ganda dan semi epistasis. Karakter green shoulder pada buah tomat dikendalikan oleh 1 gen dengan 2 alel per lokus. Gen pengendali karakter green shoulder bersifat dominan terhadap karakter tanpa green shoulder (polos) pada buah tomat.


Keywords


dominan; interaksi gen; pewarisan sifat; resesif; segregasi.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/veg.67540

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