THE IMPACT OF EARTHQUAKE ON CHILD TEST SCORE

https://doi.org/10.22146/jieb.28987

Eny Sulistyaningrum(1*)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Natural disasters always affect different aspects of individual life. They affect almost every part of life, such as the emotional, economic, physical, social, and environmental aspects. Children are believed to be very vulnerable to disasters. The increasing frequency of disasters and the intensity of their destruction motivate an analysis of the impacts of disasters, especially on education, for children. This paper uses a micro level survey data set from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) which covers approximately 83% of the Indonesian population within the survey area. The main objective of this paper is to examine the effects of earthquakes on students’ performance, measured by their child test scores. This type of disaster was chosen because of its intensity, as measured by the percentage of people killed, and the percentage of people evacuated. Moreover, we also investigate the children who took the test immediately after the earthquake and compare their scores with those whose tests were a year after the earthquake. Arguably an earthquake is an exogenous event, so we use the exogenous variation of earthquake as a natural experiment design to estimate the effect of earthquakes on child test scores. A Difference in Difference model (DiD) can be used for estimating if a certain group is exposed to the causal variable of interest, such as an earthquake, and other groups are not. The results confirm that child test scores are significantly affected by earthquakes.


Keywords


earthquake; child test score; DiD model

Full Text:

PDF


References

 

Asgary, A., & Willis, K. G. (1997). Household behaviour in response to earthquake risk: an assessment of alternative theories. Disaster, 21(4), 354-365.

Athey, S., & Imbens, G. (March 2006). Identification and Inference in Nonlinear Difference in Differences Models. Econometrics, 74(2),431-497.

Baez, J. E., & Santos, I. V. (2007). Children‘s Vulnerability to Weather Shocks: A Natural Disaster as a Natural Experiment. Working paper.

Baez, J., Fluente, A. D. L., & Santos, I. (2010). Do natural disasters affect human capital? An assessment based on existing empirical evidence. The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), IZA DP No. 5164,1-60.

Becker, G. S. (1964). Human Capital A theoritical Analysis with Special Reference to Education. New York: The National Bureau of Economic Research.

Beegle, K., Dehejia, R., & Gatti, R. (2003). Child labour, crop shocks, and credit constraints. National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working paper no.10088.

Bertrand, M., Duflo, E., & Mullainathan, S. (2004). How much should we trust differences in differences estimates? Quarterly Journal of Economics, 119(1), 249-275.

Blundell, R., Dearden, L., & Sianesi, B. (2005). Evaluating the effect of education on earnings: models, methods and results from the national child development survey. Royal Statistics Society, 168(3), 473-513.

Bustelo, M., Arends-Kuenning, M., & Lucchetti, L. (February 2012). Persistent impact of natural disasters on child nutrition and schooling: evidence from the 1999 Colombian earthquake. The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) discussion paper no. 6354.

Cameron, L. A., & Worswick, C. (2001). Education Expenditure Responses to Crop Loss in Indonesia. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 49(2), 351 363.

Canay, I. A. (2011). A Simple Approach to Quantile Regression for Panel Data. The Econometrics Journal, 14, 368-386.

Card, D. (2001). Estimating the Return to Schooling:Progress on Some Persistent Econometric Problem. Econometrica, 69(5), 1127-1160.

Carter, M.R., Little, P.D., Mogues, T & Negatu, W. (2007). Poverty Traps and Natural Dissaster in Ethiopia and Honduras. World Development, 35(5), 835 856.

Currie, J., & Thomas, D. (2001). Early test scores, school quality, and social economic status: longrun effects on wage and employment outcome. Worker Wellbeing in a Changing Labor Market, 20, 103-132.

Dammert, A. C. (2008). Child labor and schooling response to changes in coca production in rural Peru. Journal of Development Economics, 86, 164-180.

Dercon, S. (2004). Growth and shocks: evidence from rural Ethiopia. Journal of Development Economics, 74, 309 329.

Frankenberg, E., & Karoly, L. (November 1995). The 1993 Indonesian Family Life Survey: Overview and Field Report. RAND Labor and Population, DRU-1195/1-NICH/AID.

Frankenberg, E., & Thomas, D. (March 2000). The Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS): Study Design and Results from Waves 1 and 2. RAND Labor and Population, DRU-2238/1-NIA/NICHD.

Giles, J., & Satriawan, E. (2010). Protecting Child Nutritional Status in the Aftermath of a Financial Crisis. The World Bank, Policy research working paper no. 5471.

Gitter, S. R., & Barham, B. (2007). Credit, Natural Disasters, Coffee, and Educational Attainment in Rural Honduras. World Development, 35(3), 498-511.

Glewwe, P., Jacoby, H., & King, E. (1999). Early Childhood Nutrition and Academic Achievement: A longitudinal analysis. International Food Policy Research Institute, FCND DP No.68.

Greene, W. H. (2012). Econometric Analysis. Edinburgh Gate: Pearson Education Limited.

Jacoby, H. G., & Skoufias, E. (1997). Risk, financial markets, and human capital in a developing country. Review of Economic Studies, 64, 311-335.

Jehle, G. A., & Reny, P. (2001). Advanced Microeconomic Theory. London: The Addison-Wesley.

Jensen, R. (2000). Agricultural volatility and investment in children. American Economic Review, 90(2), 399-404.

Kahn, M. E. (2005). The death toll from natural disasters: the role of income, geography, and institutions. The Review of Economic and Statistics, 87(2), 271-284.

Kankwamba, H., Mangisoni, J., Simtowe, F., Mausch, K., & Siambi, M. (2012). Improved legume seed demand systems in central Malawi: what do farmers' seed expenditures say abaout their preferences? International Association of Agricultural Economist, 1-26.

Kennan, J. (1985). The Duration of Contract Strikes in US Manufacturing. Journal of Econometrics, 28, 5 28.

Kochar, A. (1999). Smoothing consumption by smoothing income: hours-of-work responses to idiosyncratic agricurtural shocks in rural India. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 81(1), 50-61.

Koenker, R., & Bassett, G. (1978). Regression Quantiles. Econometrica, 46(1), 33-50.

Lalonde, R. J. (1986). Evaluating the Econo­metric Evaluation of Training Programs with Experimental Data. American Economic Review, 76(4), 604-620.

Lasky, R. E., Klein, R. E., Yarbrough, C., Engle, P. L., Lechtig, A., & Martorell, R. (1981). The relationship between physical growth and infant behavioural development in rural Guatemala. Child Development, 52(1), 219-226.

Lee, M. J., & Kang, C. (2006). Identification for difference in differences with cross-section and panel data. Economic Letters, 92, 270-276.

Maluccio, J. A., Haddinott, J., Behrman, J., Martorell, R., & Quisumbing, A. (2006). The Impact of Nutrition during Early CHildhood on Education among Guatemalan Adults. Population Studies Center University of Pennsylvania, Working paper.

Marshall, A. (1961). Principles of Economics (9th Ed.). London: Macmillan.

Mincer, J. (1958). Investment in human capital and personal income distribution. The Journal of Political Economy, 66, 281-302.

Morduch, J. (1995). Income smoothing and consumption smoothing. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(3), 103-114.

Neumayer, E., & Plumper, T. (2007). The gendered nature of natural disasters: the impact of catastrophic events on the gender gap in life expectancy, 1981-2002. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 97(3), 551-566.

Nichols, A. (2007). Causal Inference with Observational Data. The Stata Journal, 7(4), 507-541.

Ninno, C. D., & Dorosh, P. (2003). Public Policy, Markets and Household Coping in Bangladesh: Avoiding a Food Security Crisis Following the 1998 Floods. World Development, 31(7), 1221-1238.

Ninno, C. D., & Lundberg, M. (2005). Treading water the long term impact of the 1998 flood on nutrition in Bangladesh. Economics and Human Biology, 3, 67-96.

Ninno, C. d., & Lundberg, M. (2005). Treading water the long-term impact of the 1998 flood on nutrition in Bangladesh. Economics and Human Biology, 3, 67-96.

Ninno, C. D., Dorosh, P. A., Smith, L. C., & Roy, D. K. (1998). The 1998 Floods in Bangladesh. International Food Policy Research Institute, 1-114.

Palm, R. (1998). Urban earthquake hazards. Applied Geography, 18(1), 35-46.

Paxson, C. H. (1992). Using weather variability to estimate the response of savings to transitory income in Thailand. The American Economic Review, 82(1), 15-33.

Puhani, P. A. (April 2008). The Treatment Effect, the Cross Difference, and the Interaction Term in Nonlinear Difference in Differences Models. The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) , IZA DP No.3478.

RAND. (2010, May 24). RAND Labour and Population Program. Retrieved from Indonesia Family Life Survey: http:// www.rand.org/labor/FLS/IFLS/

Riccio, James, Dechaussay, N., Greenberg, D., Miller, C., Rucks, Z., & Verma, N. (2010). Toward Reduced Poverty Across Generations: Early Findings from New York City’s Conditional Cash Transfer Program. New York: MDRC.

Rose, A., & Lim, D. (2002). Business interuption losses from natural hazards: conceptual and methodological issues in the case of Northridge earthquake. Environment Hazards, 4, 1-14.

Skoufias, E. (2003). Economic crises and natural disasters: coping strategies and policy implications. World Development, 31(7), 1087-1102.

Smith, A. (1969). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations. In Arthur Hugh Jenkins (Eds.). Port Washington, N.Y: Kennikat Press (Original work published 1776).

Smith, S. K., & McCarty, C. (1996). Demographic effects of natural disasters: a case study of Hurricane Andrew. Demo­graphy, 33(2), 265-275.

Sparrow, R. (2007). Protecting Education for the Poor in Times of Crises: An Evaluation of a Scholarship Programme in Indonesia. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 69 (1), 99-122.

Sunderlin, W. D., Angelsen, A., Resosudarmo, D. P., Dermawan, A., & Rianto, E. (2001). Economic crisis, smal farmer well-being, and forest cover change in Indonesia. World Development, 29(5), 767-782.

The World Bank. (2010, November 18). Data. Retrieved from Indicators: http://data. worldbank.org

Thomas, D., Witoelar, F., Frankenberg, E., Sikoki, B., Strauss, J., Sumantri, C., & Suriastini, W. (2010). Cutting the costs of attrition: Results from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. RAND.

Toya, H., & Skidmore, M. (2007). Economic development and the impacts of natural disasters. Economics Letters, 94, 20-25.

Trostel, P., Walker, I., & Woolley, P. (2002). Estimates of the economic return to schooling for 28 countries. Labour Economics, 9, 1-16.

Ureta, M. (2005). Hurricane Mitch, Family Budget and Schooling in Nicaragua. Working Paper, Departement of Economics Texas A&M University.

Webb, G. R., Tierney, K. J., & Dahlhamer, J. M. (2002). Predicting long term business recovery from disaster: a comparison of the Loma Prieta earthquake and Hurricane Andrew. Environmental Hazards, 4, 45-58.

Wong, P. Y., & Brown, P. (2011). Natural Disasters and Vulnerability: Evidence from the 1997 Forest Fires in Indonesia. The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 11(1), 66.

 



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jieb.28987

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 981 | views : 1180

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business

Journal

Editorial Team
Focus and Scope
Peer Review Process
Publication Ethics
Screening for Plagiarism

Authors

Author Guidelines
Submission Guidelines
Online Submissions
Copyright Notice
Privacy Statement
Author Fees

Download

Author Pack
Submission Form & Manuscript Template

 

Reviewer

Reviewer Guidelines
Reviewer Acknowledgement

 

Reader

General Search
Achieves
Author index
Title index

 

 

The Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business (print ISSN 2085-8272; online ISSN 2338-5847) is published by the Faculty of Economics and Business Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

© 2019 Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business 
 Visitor Statistics