A Charismatic Relationship: How a Kyai’s Charismatic Leadership and Society’s Compliance are Constructed?

https://doi.org/10.22146/jieb.54705

Abdul Karim(1*), Halim Purnomo(2), Fikriyah Fikriyah(3), Endah Nurhawaeny Kardiyati(4)

(1) Universitas Muhammadiyah Cirebon
(2) Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
(3) Universitas Muhammadiyah Cirebon
(4) Universitas Muhammadiyah Cirebon
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Main Objectives: This study emphasizes the authority of a Kyai lies in the integration between the charismatic leadership and society’s compliance. The background problem of this study is whether charisma is fundamentally a result of the attributes of a leader, the situational circumstance, or a process of interaction between the leader and society? The novelty of this research is the concept of how a leader becomes charismatic and subordinates other people’s perceptions & compliance. The research method for this study is a quantitative method, with two variables and it is strengthened by a qualitative method with one variable. Qualitatively, the data about the charisma of leaders are collected through interviews, and it was then analyzed by screening, display, and interpretation. Quantitatively, the data about perception & the impact of a leader’s charisma are collected by use of a questionnaire, after the data passed the tests of validity, normality, linearity, percentage formula, average formula and then analyzed as well as hypothesis testing by a simple regression formula to determine the level of influence. The findings of this study are: (1) the seven efforts of a charismatic leader namely glory, blessings, confidence, obedience to the God, efficacy, having influence, and the ability to predict the future, (2) the society’s perception of the charisma of leaders is average and tends to be poor and (3) the impact of the leader’s charisma on society is only 19.9%, which shows it has a poor influence. Conclusion: The data agreed with the meaning of the term charismatic relationship. The implication of the results of this study is that society’s compliance with its leaders’ wishes is very dependent on the perception or relationship between them.

Keywords


charismatic leadership, charismatic relationship, society’s compliance, kyai

Full Text:

PDF


References

Abbasiyannejad, M., Silong, A. D., Ismail, I. A., Othman, J., Wahiza, N., & Wahat, A. (2015). Charismatic Leadership and Society. International Research Journal of Social Science, 4(1), 68–73. Retrieved from www.isca.in

Alavi, Khadijah & Fauziah Ibrahim, Mohd Suhaimi Mohamad, Wan Shahrazad Wan Sulaiman, S. N. dan N. S. (2013). Knowledge Level among Prisoners of Parole: Towards Establishment of a Prosperous Character. E-Bangi: Journal Of Social Science And Humanities, 8(2), 1–10.

Ali, M. (2018). Ibn al-ʿArabī and Islamic Intellectual Culture: From Mysticism to Philosophy By Caner K. Dagli. Journal of Islamic Studies, ety023-ety023. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jis/ety023

Amendolara, L. P. (1993). The Charismatic Core Of Lay Leaders. [Dissertation. Fordham University New York.

Antonakis, J., & Day, D. V. (2011). The Nature of leadership. In 2nd Edition.

Antonakis, J., & House, R. J. (2014). Instrumental leadership: Measurement and extension of transformational–transactional leadership theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(4), 746–771. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.04.005

Arikunto. (2010). Research Management. Jakarta, Indonesia: PT Rineka Cipta.

Azra, A. (2017). Kesalehan Sosial. Kompas (Opini), pp. 1–2.

Bell, R. M. (1987). Charismatic Leadership Case Study with Ronald Reagan as Exemplar. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 65(1), 83–91.

Biviano, J. A. (2000). Charismatic leadership: an effective instrument for cultural transformation. RMIT Business.

Brannen, J. (2005). Memadu Metode Penelitian Kualitatif & Kuantitatif. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Pustaka Pelajar.

Brinkman, R. (2015). How charismatic leadership affects direct follower behavior and perceived meeting effectiveness. Netherlands: Management and social science. Retrieved from http://essay.utwente.nl/68536/1/Brinkman_BA_MB.pdf

Bruinessen, M. van. (1990). Kitab Kuning: Books in Arabic script used in the Pesantren milieu (Comments on a new collection in the KITLV Library). Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land- En Volkenkunde, 146, 226–269.

Buresh, S. (2002). Pesantren-Based Development: Islam, Education, and Economic Development in Indonesia. University of Virginia.

Davies, J. C. (1954). charisma in the 1952 campaign. Amerincan Political Science Review, 48(4), 1083–1102.

Dhofier, Z. (1980). The pesantren tradition: A study of the role of the Kyai in the maintenance of the traditional ideology of Islam in Java. Australian National University.

Dhofier, Z. (1999). The pesantren tradition: A study of the role of the Kiai in the maintenance of the traditional ideology of Islam in Java. Journal of Arizona State Unifersity Program for Southeast Asian Studies Monograph Series.

Duncanson, S. N. (2011). Influence of Followers’ Achievement Orientation and Self-Concept: an Alternate Explanation of Followers’ Evaluations of Charismatic, Relationship-oriented, And Task-oriented Leaders. of Trident Universi.

Epley, J. L. (2015). Weber’s Theory of Charismatic Leadership: The Case of Muslim Leaders in Contemporary Indonesian Politics. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 5(7), 7–17.

Geertz, C. (1960). The Javanese Kijaji; the changing role of a cultural broker. Comparative Studies in Society and History. Retrieved from http://pnri.summon.serialssolutions.com/2.0.0/link/0

Hentrup, L. (2017). Charismatic Leadership in Context : Awe-Inducing Environments Influence Leader Perceptions. Organizational Psychology Maastricht University.

Hom, Anna Garcia, Rachel Palmen, Ramon J. Moles Plaza, S. F. F. (2007). Risk Management of Uncertainty Governance?: The Challenge of an Interdisciplinary Approach. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Science, 2(3), 127–134.

Judge, T. A., Woolf, E. F., Hurst, C., & Livingston, B. (2006). Charismatische und transformationale führung: Ein überblick und eine agenda für zukünftige forschungsarbeiten. Zeitschrift Fur Arbeits- Und Organisationspsychologie, 50(4), 203–214. https://doi.org/10.1026/0932-4089.50.4.203

Karim, A. (2016). Managerial inspriation in the traditional pesantren. UMRAN - International Journal of Islamic and Civilizational Studies (EISSN: 2289-8204), 3(3–1), 73–84. https://doi.org/10.11113/umran2016.3n3-1.150

Karim, A. (2017). Kepemimpinan & Manajemen Kiai dalam Pendidikan: Studi Kasus pada Pesantren Bendakerep, Gedongan dan Buntet Cirebon. Retrieved from http://repository.uinjkt.ac.id/dspace/bitstream/123456789/38767/1/Abdul Karim_Kepemimpinan.bak.pdf

Karim, A. (2019). Inspiration, policy and decision maker. In N. J. Beachum & S. Kulkarni (Eds.), In Search of Creativity: A Compilation of International Studies Part-II. Tampere, Finland (II, pp. 34–64). Retrieved from https://scholar.google.co.id/citations?user=BFhOOpcAAAAJ&hl=en

Karim, A., Mardhotillah, N. F., & Samadi, M. I. (2019). Ethical leadership transforms into ethnic: Exploring new leaders’s style of Indonesia. Journal of Leadership in Organizations, 1(2), 146–157. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.22146/jlo.44625

Kelley, R. E. (1992). The power of followership. New York, USA: Doubleday Publishing.

Khuluq, L. (1997). Kyai Haji Hasyim Asy’ari’s Religious Thought and Political Activities (1871-1947). McGill University, 110–114. Retrieved from http://www.ebp.aaykpn.ac.id/kitab/kitab2_ke_nu_an/KYAI HAJI HASWM ASY%27ARI%27S.pdf

Mason, J. (2002). Qualitative Researching (2nd Editio). London: Sage Publications.

Michel, John W. & Devin L. Wallace, & R. A. R. (2013). Charismatic leaders: the role of admiration and system justification. Leadership & Organization Development Journal., 34(5), 469–487.

Myers, M. D. (2009). Qualitative Research in Business & Management. London, England: SAGE Publication Ltd.

Nasiromar, M. (2010). Ethics in Islam: A Critical Survey. ISLÓMIYYÓT, 32, 157 – 171.

Nikezić, S., Doljanica, S., & Bataveljić, D. (2013). Charismatic and Transformational Leadership: Approaches for Effecting. Annals of the Oradea University, 9(2), 179–187. Retrieved from http://imtuoradea.ro/auo.fmte/files-2013-v2/NikezicS2-IMT-Oradea-2013.pdf

Nikoloski, K. (2015a). Charismatic Leadership and Power : Using the Power of Charisma for better leadership in the enterprises. Journal of Process Management, 3(2), 18–27.

Nikoloski, K. (2015b). Charismatic leadership and power: Using the power of charisma for better leadership in the enterprises. Journal of Process Management, 3(2), 18–27. Retrieved from http://eprints.ugd.edu.mk/14393/1/7.

Oberhuber, S., & Maurer, I. (2015). Quantitative Data Analysis. Text durch Klicken hinzufügen.

Ohl, C. M. (1980). An Exploratory Investigation Of House’s 1976 Theory Of Charisma As Revealed In The Speeches Of American Charismatic Leaders. The Florida State University College.

Paterson, A., Leung, D., Jackson, W., Macintosh, R., & O’Gorman, K. (2016). Quantitative Data Gathering Methods and Techniques. Research Methods for Accounting and Finance (The Global). Oxford England: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd. https://doi.org/10.23912/978-1-910158-88-3-3226

Pivato, E. (2008). Personality Structure and Moral Development: Exploring the Interface. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 3(9), 195–200. Retrieved from doi:10.18848/1833-1882/CGP/v03i09/52708.

Pohl, F. (2006). Islamic education and civil society: Reflections on the pesantren tradition in contemporary Indonesia. Comparative Education Review, Special Issue on Islam and Education, 50(3), 389–409. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/503882%0A

Popper, M. (2000). The development of charismatic leaders. Political Psychology, 21(4), 729–744. https://doi.org/10.1111/0162-895X.00214

Poskas, Denise A., Cynthia C. Messer, Jody Horntvedt, & M. E. V. (2013). Exploring the Impact of Charismatic Leaders in Communities. University of Minnesota.

Rahardjo, M. (1986). The Life of Santri Youth: a View from the Pesantren Window at Pabelan. Jurnal Institut of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), 1(1), 32–56. Retrieved from https://bookshop.iseas.edu.sg/publication/1631#contents

Rahmat, P. (2009). Penelitian kualitatif. Equilibrium, 5(9), 1–8.

Shalit, A. (2010). Followers’Attachment Styles and Their Preference for Social or for Personal Charismatic Leaders. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 31(No. 5), 458–472.

Sparks, G. A. (2014). Charismatic leadership: Findings of an exploratory investigation of the techniques of influence. Behavioral Studies in Business, 7(9), 1–11. Retrieved from http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/141964.pdf

Sudijono, A. (2009). Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan. Jakarta, Indonesia: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada.

Takala, T. (2005). Charismatic leadership and power. Problem and Perspective in Management, 3, 45–57.

Varella, P., Javidan, M., & Waldman, D. (2005). The Differential effects of socialized and personalized leadership on group social capital.

Welton, M. D. (Reviewer). (2013). The Impossible State: Islam, Politics, and Modernity’s Moral Predicament, by Wael B. Hallaq 2013. New York: Columbia University Press.

Winardi J. (2003). Entrepreneur & entrepreneurship. Jakarta, Indonesia: Prenada Media Group.

Yukl, G. A. (1998). Leadership in organization. (J. (trans. . Udaya, Ed.) ((edition o). Jakarta: Prenhallindo.

Zaini, A. (1998). KH. Abdul Wahid Hasyim: His Contribution to Muslim Educational Reform and to Indonesian Nationalism During the Twentieth Century. McGill University.

Ziemek, M. (1986). Pesantren dalam Perubahan Sosial. Jakarta, Indonesia: P3M.

 

 



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jieb.54705

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 462 | views : 648

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business

Journal

Editorial Team
Focus and Scope
Peer Review Process
Publication Ethics
Screening for Plagiarism

Authors

Author Guidelines
Submission Guidelines
Online Submissions
Copyright Notice
Privacy Statement
Author Fees

Download

Author Pack
Submission Form & Manuscript Template

 

Reviewer

Reviewer Guidelines
Reviewer Acknowledgement

 

Reader

General Search
Achieves
Author index
Title index

 

 

The Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business (print ISSN 2085-8272; online ISSN 2338-5847) is published by the Faculty of Economics and Business Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

© 2019 Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business 
 Visitor Statistics