Pengaruh Suhu dan Metode Perlakuan Panas terhadap Sifat Fisika dan Kualitas Finishing Kayu Mahoni

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.10160

Ragil Widyorini(1*), Khusnul Khotimah(2), Tibertius Agus Prayitno(3)

(1) Bagian Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281
(2) 
(3) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Perlakuan panas dikenal sebagai metode yang dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan stabilitas dimensi dan menurunkan higroskopisitas. Di sisi lain, perlakuan panas dapat membuat warna kayu menjadi lebih gelap, penurunan sifat mekanika kayu, dan sifat wetabilitas kayu. Oleh karena itu, penelitian mengenai perlakuan panas pada kondisi yang optimum sangat menarik untuk dilakukan agar menghasilkan kayu dengan kualitas yang lebih baik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh interaksi suhu dan metode perlakuan panas terhadap sifat fisika dan kualitas finishing kayu mahoni. Contoh uji perlakuan dibuat dari kayu mahoni yang berasal dari industri penggergajian kayu rakyat. Penelitian ini menggunakan 2 metode perlakuan panas yaitu metode oven dan penguapan (steaming) pada variasi suhu 90°C, 120°C, dan 150°C selama 2 jam waktu efektif. Pengujian sifat fisika diuji berdasarkan standar ASTM, yang meliputi : kadar air seimbang, perubahan dimensi, perubahan warna, dan wetabilitas. Pengujian finishing meliputi cross cut test, uji delaminasi, dan uji kekilapan (glossy test). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa interaksi antara suhu dan metode perlakuan panas berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap perubahan warna, serta berpengaruh nyata terhadap penyusutan radial, cross cut test, dan uji delaminasi. Metode oven menghasilkan contoh uji dengan kadar air dan pengembangan radial yang lebih rendah, warna yang lebih terang, serta uji delaminasi yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan metode penguapan.

Kata kunci: perlakuan panas, metode oven, metode penguapan, suhu, finishing

 

Effect of temperature and heat treatment on physical properties and finishing quality of mahagony wood

Abstract

Heat treatment is well known as a method for increasing dimensional stability and reducing hygroscopicity of wood. However, heat tratment can cause the color of wood become darker and reduce the wettability, as well as its mechanical properties. Therefore, the optimum condition of heat treatment is essential to be studied to obtain the high quality of properties treated wood. This research focused on investigating the heating temperature and treatment method on physical properties and finishing quality of mahagony wood. Two treatment methods, i.e. oven method and steaming method, were used in this research. The heating temperatures were set at 90°C, 120°C, and 150°C. The effective heating time was 2 h. The wood physical properties were tested according to ASTM standards and wood finishing quality were tested for its cross cut, delamination, and glossy test. The results showed that interaction between treatment method and heating temperature affected significantly on the change in color, radial shrinkage, cross cut test, and delamination test. Oven method resulted in reducing moisture content and radial shrinkage, light color, and better quality of wood, compared to steaming method. 

 


Keywords


heat treatment; oven method; steaming method; heating temperature; finishing properties

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.10160

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