Sifat Fisika Mekanika dan Ketahanan Papan Partikel Bambu dengan Perekat Asam Sitrat terhadap Serangan Rayap Kayu Kering

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.10180

Ragil Widyorini(1*), Ari Puspa Yudha(2), Ganis Lukmandaru(3), Tibertius Agus Prayitno(4)

(1) Bagian Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Agro No. 1 Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281
(2) Bagian Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Agro No. 1 Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281
(3) Bagian Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Agro No. 1 Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281
(4) Bagian Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Agro No. 1 Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Penelitian mengenai penggunaan asam sitrat sebagai agen pengikat alami masih relatif sedikit. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini difokuskan pada pengaruh jumlah asam sitrat dan suhu pengempaan terhadap sifat papan partikel bambu, termasuk ketahanannya terhadap serangan rayap kayu kering. Bahan penelitian adalah partikel bambu petung. Komposisi kimia bahan baku bambu diuji untuk kadar ekstraktif, holoselulosa, lignin, dan alfa selulosa. Faktor pada penelitian ini adalah jumlah asam sitrat (0 - 40%) berdasarkan berat kering udara partikel) dan suhu pengempaan (200 oC dan 220 oC). Sifat fisika dan mekanika papan partikel diuji berdasarkan standar pengujian JIS A 5908. Analisis menggunakan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) juga dilakukan untuk mengetahui perubahan gugus ester pada berbagai jumlah asam sitrat dan suhu pengempaan. Pengujian ketahanan terhadap serangan rayap kayu kering juga dilakukan dengan menghitung nilai pengurangan berat dan mortalitas rayap setelah 6 minggu. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa interaksi kedua faktor berpengaruh nyata terhadap nilai pengembangan tebal, penyerapan air, modulus elastisitas dan modulus patah. Intensitas gugus C=O yang ditunjukkan pada puncak 1720 cm-1 semakin bertambah besar seiiring dengan semakin banyaknya jumlah asam sitrat, yang menyebabkan kekuatan perekatan dan stabilitas dimensi papan partikel menjadi semakin kuat. Kondisi optimum pada penelitian ini adalah papan partikel dengan penambahan jumlah asam sitrat 20 % pada suhu pengempaan 200 oC dengan kualitas yang dapat memenuhi standar JIS A 5908 tipe 8. Penambahan asam sitrat dapat meningkatkan mortalitas rayap kayu kering secara nyata. Penambahan 20 % asam sitrat pada suhu pengempaan 200 oC menghasilkan nilai pengurangan berat 0,9 % dan mortalitas rayap 57 %.

Kata kunci: bambu petung, asam sitrat, suhu pengempaan, jumlah asam sitrat.

 

Mechanical properties and durability against the dry termite attacks of particleboard made from bamboo with citric acid as adhesive 

Abstract

Research on development of citric acid as natural adhesive are still limited. Therefore this research focused on effects of citric acid content and pressing temperature on properties of particleboard made from bamboo, including its durability to the dry termite attacks. Petung bamboo particles were used as raw materials. Chemical characteristics of petung bamboo were analyzed for its extractive, lignin, holocellulose and alpha cellulose. Factors used in this research were citric acid content (0 - 40 %) based on dry weight particles and pressing temperature (200 oC dan 220 oC). Properties of the particleboard were analyzed based on Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 for particleboard. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was used for investigating the changes of ester groups at various citric acid content and pressing temperature. The dry termite resistance was then analyzed for its weight loss and mortality after 6 weeks. The results showed that interaction between two factors affected significantly on thickness swelling, water absorption, modulus of elasticity, and modulus of rupture. Intensity of C=O groups became stronger as increasing citric acid content, providing high mechanical properties and high dimensional stability. Optimum condition in this research was achieved at 20 % of citric acid content and 200 oC of pressing temperature, which the board properties met the requirement of JIS A 5908 type 8. Increasing of citric acid content would also increase the dry termite mortality. Addition of 20 % citric acid at 200 oC of pressing temperature produced particleboard with the weight loss was 0.9 % and 57 % of the dry termite mortality.

 


Keywords


petung bamboo; citric acid; citric acid content; pressing temperature

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.10180

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