Keanekaragaman Jenis Semut pada Tingkat Perkembangan Lahan yang Berbeda: Pendekatan Fase Agroforestri

Ananto Triyogo(1*), Budiadi Budiadi(2), SM Widyastuti(3), Suwito Setyo Budi(4), Selly Varanita(5)

(1) Departemen Sillvikultur, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Departemen Sillvikultur, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Departemen Sillvikultur, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(4) Sekolah Vokasi Program Studi Pengelolaan Hutan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(5) Sekolah Vokasi Program Studi Pengelolaan Hutan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


Tingkat perkembangan lahan umumnya diikuti dengan perubahan struktur vegetasi penyusun ekosistem yang ada didalamnya. Dalam perjalanannya, muncul intervensi yang dapat mempengaruhi tingkat perkembangan lahan baik mendukung ataupun menghambat. Salah satu bentuk intervensi yang dapat terjadi adalah berupa aktivitas pemanfaatan lahan, sistem agroforestri (AF). Pergeseran tingkat perkembangan lahan melalui pendekatan tingkat perkembangan AF diikuti perubahan vegetasi penyusun menuju kearah ekosistem yang mendekati ekosistem hutan. Dari sisi ekologi, bagaimana perkembangan AF berdampak terhadap struktur komunitas serangga penyusun di dalamnya, khususnya semut, penting diketahui. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui struktur komunitas semut yang menyusun ekosistem AF. Pengambilan data dilakukan di tiga tingkat AF (awal, tengah, dan lanjut) di musim kemarau (April, Mei, Juni, Agustus, dan September). Metode koleksi semut yang digunakan adalah pit-fall trap dan penangkapan langsung. Total diperoleh 7 jenis semut terdiri dari Odontoponera denticulate (Ponerinae), Odontomachus sp. (Ponerinae), Anaplolepis gracilipes (Formicinae), Pheidologeton sp. (Myrmicinae), Camponotus sp. (Formicinae), Polyrachis sp. (Forminae), dan Crematogaster sp. (Myrmicinae). Tingkat perkembangan AF tidak diikuti dengan perbedaan jenis semut namun berdampak pada kemelimpahan masing-masing jenis. Keanekaragaman jenis tertinggi serta jumlah individu semut terbesar berturut-turut ada pada AF tengah, awal, dan lanjut. Selanjutnya, terdapat 5 kelompok fungsional dengan variasi kemelimpahan berdasarkan perkembangan AF. Tingkat AF awal lebih sesuai untuk kelompok Generalized myrmicinae (GM),AF tengah untuk kelompok Dominant opportunist, dan AF lanjut untuk Forest opportunist (FO).


The Diversity of Ants in Different Land Develompental: An Agroforestry Phase Approach


The levels of land development process typically followed by changes in the vegetation structure of the ecosystems that comprises it. In a process, interventions whether artificial (human) or naturals were able to affect land development, either support or hinder. Some of the interventions that possible to occur are human activities through revegetation and land use, such as agroforestry practice (AF). The levels of land development through the shift of AF development phase common followed by changes in the vegetation inside. In terms of ecology, the mechanism of how the AF development phase affects the community structure is important to know. This research was conducted to determine the community structure of ants under the AF ecosystem and it is functional groups. In addition, we devided the AF system based on its developmental phase (early, middle, and advance). The data was obtained in the area of Nglanggeran, Gunung Kidul Regency of Yogyakarta during the dry season (April, May, June, August, and September). Meanwhile, method of ant collection utilized pit-fall trap and direct collection method. A total 7 species of ants were obtained consisting Odontoponera denticulate (Ponerinae), Odontomachus sp. (Ponerinae), Anaplolepis gracilipes (Formicinae), Pheidologeton sp. (Myrmicinae), Camponotus sp. (Formicinae), Polyrachis sp. (Forminae), and Crematogaster sp. (Myrmicinae). The AF phase are not followed by different species of ants but has an impact on the species abundance. The highest species diversity and the largest number of individual ants were found in middle, early, and advanced AF, respectively. Furthermore, there are 5 ant functional groups with variouss abundance based on AF phase. The early AF is more suitable for Generalized myrmicinae (GM) groups, middle for Dominant opportunist (DO) and GM groups, while advanced for Forest opportunist (FO) groups.


agroforestry phase; ant; diversity; functional group; agroforestri; keanekaragaman jenis; kelompok fungsional; semut

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