Potensi Biomasa dan Simpanan Karbon Jenis-jenis Tanaman Berkayu di Hutan Rakyat Desa Nglanggeran, Gunungkidul, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.5778

Ris Hadi Purwanto(1*), Rohman Rohman(2), Ahmad Maryudi(3), Teguh Yuwono(4), Dwiko Budi Permadi(5), Makmun Sanjaya(6)

(1) Bagian Manajemen Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(2) Bagian Manajemen Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(3) Bagian Manajemen Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(4) Bagian Manajemen Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(5) Bagian Manajemen Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(6) Alumni Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Selain menghasilkan kayu perkakas dan kayu bakar, hutan rakyat sebagaimana hutan pada umumnya juga berfungsi sebagai penyimpan karbon, sehingga memainkan peran yang sangat penting di dalam siklus karbon global (the global carbon cycle). Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk (a) mengetahui jenis-jenis tanaman berkayu mulai dari tingkat tiang (poles: D = 10 cm) di hutan rakyat Desa Nglanggeran, (b) mengetahui karakteristik pertumbuhan tanaman berkayu penyusun hutan rakyat meliputi pertumbuhan diameter batang setinggi dada, tinggi, kerapatan pohon dan luas bidang dasarnya, dan (c) mengetahui kandungan biomasa dan karbon. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan ada 25 jenis tanaman berkayu yang ditanam dan dikembangkan oleh masyarakat petani hutan rakyat di Desa Nglanggeran yang sebagian besar menanam dan mengembangkan jenis tanaman mahoni. Rata-rata diameter batang setinggi dada untuk jenis-jenis tanaman berkayu mulai tingkat tiang (poles: dbh = 10 cm) adalah 20,8 cm (kisaran: 17,0 - 27,3 cm), dan tinggi rata-rata 15,0 cm (kisaran: 11,6 - 20,6 cm). Jumlah pohon per hektar 162 pohon yang terdiri dari jenis mahoni (67 pohon/ha), akasia (38 pohon/ha), sonokeling (25 pohon/ha), jati (9 pohon/ha), sengon (3 pohon/ha) dan jenis lainnnya (20 pohon/ha). Rata-rata luas bidang dasar 4,918 m2 /ha. Rata-rata simpanan biomasa sebesar 38,106 ton/ha yang terdiri dari jenis mahoni 23,119 ton/ha, akasia 7,036 ton/ha, sonokeling 3,440 ton/ha, jati 1,614 ton/ha, sengon 0,464 ton/ha dan jenis lainnya 2,434 ton/ha. Bila diasumsikan 50 % berat biomasa adalah karbon maka rata-rata simpanan karbon di hutan rakyat Desa Nglanggeran sebesar 19,053 ton/ha yang terdiri dari jenis mahoni 11,560 ton/ha, akasia 3,518 ton/ha, sonokeling 1,720 ton/ha, jati 0,807 ton/ha, sengon 0,232 ton/ha dan jenis lainnya 1,217 ton/ha. Penelitian tentang potensi biomasa dan simpanan karbon hutan di hutan rakyat memberi peluang hutan rakyat dalam menyambut era perdagangan karbon.

Katakunci: potensi biomasa, simpanan karbon, jenis-jenis tanaman berkayu, hutan rakyat

 

Biomass Potentials and Carbon Storage of Wooden Plants in the Community Forest of Nglanggeran Village, Gunungkidul Regency, Yogyakarta

Abstract

Community forests, like any other forests, do not only produce timber and fire-woods but they also function as carbon storage, and therefor they play a very important role in the global carbon cycle. This research aims were (a) determining the types of perennial woods (diameter at breast height, D = 10 cm which grown on community forest of Ngalaggeran Village, (b) determining the growth characteristics of vegetations which make up the community forest, including diameter at breast height, height of trees, tree density and basal area, and (c) determining the biomass and carbon storage in the community forests of Nglanggeran Village.The research used the allometric method to assess the biomass of mahagony, acacia, sonokeling, teak, sengon and the others. The research result showed that there were 25 species of perennial woods, which cultivated by the community forest’s farmers in Nglanggeran Village, most of which is mahagony. The average of stem diameter at breast was 20.8 cm (range between 17.0 and 27.3 cm), and the average height was 15.0 cm (range between 11.6 and 20.6 cm). The tree density per hectare was 162, consisting mostly of mahagony (67 trees per hectare) acacia (38 trees per hectare), sonokeling (25 trees per hectare), teak (9 trees per hectare), sengon (3 trees per hectare) and the others (20 trees per hectare). The average of basal area was 4.918 m2 per hectare. The average biomass was 38.106 tons per hectare which include mahagony 23.119 tons per hectare, acacia 7.036 tons per hectare, sonokeling 3.440 tons per hectare, teak 1.614 tons per hectare, sengon 0.464 ton per hectare and others 2.434 tons per hectare. If it is assumed that 50% of biomass weight is carbon, then the average carbon storage at Nglanggeran Village community forest is 19.053 tons per hectare, which include mahagony 11.560 tons per hectare, and the others 1.217 tons per hectare. The research about forest biomass and carbon stock in a community forest provides a chance of the community forest in preparing to face the carbon trading era.


Keywords


biomass and carbon storage; perennial woods; community forest

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.5778

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