Komponen Kimia Kayu Jati dengan Pertumbuhan Eksentris

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.579

Ganis Lukmandaru(1*)

(1) Bagian Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kualitas kayu cacat. Spesimen penelitian berupa 10 pohon miring yang diperoleh dari kegiatan penjarangan dari tegakan jati (Tectona grandis L.f.) di Randublatung, Jawa Tengah. Pada setiap pohon, kayu di bagian eksentrisnya dipisahkan \, kemudian sampel serbuk kayu diambil pada bagian teras terluar pada kedua lebar lingkaran tahun maksimum (bagian atas pohon miring) dan pada arah yang berlawanan, yaitu yang mempunyai lebar lingkaran tahun minimum (bagian bawah pohon miring). Serbuk kayu dihaluskan sampai mencapai 40-60 mesh untuk analisis kimia. Analisis data melalui uji t pohon pada kadar ekstraktif etanol-benzena (4-12%), kadar terlarut air panas (1-3%), kadar abu (0,7-3%) dan kadar lignin terlarut asam (0,7-1,4%). Pengukuran menggunakan GC dan GC-MS, menunjukkan tidak ada beda yang mencolok pada jumlah komponen utama ekstraktif etanol-benzena. Sebaliknya, kayu dengan lingkaran tahun paling lebar secara konsisten memiliki kadar lignin Klason lebih tinggi (32-35%) dibandingkan kayu dengan lingkaran tahun sempit (29-33%). Hasil-hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa eksentris lebih berkaitan dengan komponen dinding sel kayu daripada zat-zat metabolism sekunder. Selanjutnya, tidak terlihat juga adanya indikasi terhadap pembentukan kayu tarik.

Kata kunci: Tectona Grandis, kayu eksentris, pohon miring, sifat kimia, riap tumbuh.

 

Chemical Components of Teak Wood with Eccentric Growth 

Abstract

The objective of this study is to learn the quality of abnormal woods. The specimens were 10 leaning trees obtained from thinned teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) stand in Randublatung, Central Java. In each tree, the eccentric growth parts were isolated, then wood meal sample was drilled at the outer heartwood part of both maximum annual-ring width (upper part of leaning stem) and in its opposite side, which had minimum annual-ring width (lower part of leaning stem). The wood meals were ground to size of 40-60 mesh for chemical analysis. Data analysis by paired t-test showed that no significant difference was found between the upper and lower parts in ethanol-benzene extractive content (4-12%), hot-water soluble content (1-3%), ash content (0.73%) and acid soluble lignin content (0.7-1.4 %) . By means of Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), no striking difference was also observed in the levels of major components of ethanol-benzene extracts. On the other hand, in Klason lignin content, the wood with widest ring consistently showed a higher content (32-35 %) than that with narrowest ring (29-33 %). These findings indicated that the eccentricity is more related to cell wall components than to secondary metabolites. Further, there is no indication with regard to the formation of tension wood.


Keywords


Tectona Grandis; eccentric wood; leaning tree; chemical properties; increment rate

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.579

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