Studi Komponen Kimia Kayu Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell dari Pohon Plus Hasil Uji Keturunan Generasi Kedua di Wonogiri, Jawa Tengah

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.6138

Siti Fatimah(1*), Mudji Susanto(2), Ganis Lukmandaru(3),

(1) Bagian Teknologi Hasil Hutan Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Balai Besar Penelitian Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan Yogyakarta
(3) Bagian Teknologi Hasil Hutan Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell (E. pellita) merupakan salah satu jenis tanaman cepat tumbuh yang sedang dikembangkan melalui program pemuliaan. Pengembangan jenis ini sudah memberikan hasil yang cukup memuaskan dari sifat pertumbuhan genetika pada uji keturunan generasi pertama dan kedua. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan kimia kayu, mengelompokkan dan memeringkatkan pohon plus berdasarkan komponen kimia untuk mendukung program pengembangan uji keturunan generasi berikutnya, khususnya kayu untuk pulp dan kertas. Bahan yang digunakan adalah sampel yang berasal dari 61 pohon plus E. pellita umur 9 tahun yang ditanam di uji keturunan generasi kedua Wonogiri dan berasal dari 6 provenan berbeda. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan sistem bor riap pada pangkal pohon setinggi 90 cm dari permukaan tanah. Hasil bor riap digiling hingga diperoleh serbuk kayu dengan ukuran 40-60 mesh. Pengujian sifat kimia kayu mengacu pada standar ASTM. Pengujian tersebut mencakup kadar ekstraktif etanol-toluena dan air panas melalui ekstraksi berurutan, kemudian kadar holoselulosa, alfa-selulosa dan lignin. Analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif dan gerombol. Hasil analisis menunjukkan kisaran kadar ekstraktif etanol-toluena dan air panas secara berurutan adalah 1,87 - 10,92 % dan 0,64 - 10,00 %. Kisaran kadar holoselulosa, alfa-selulosa dan lignin adalah 72,89 - 79,91 %, 41,84 - 54,85 % dan 22,12 - 36,61% secara berurutan. Koefisien variasi yang tinggi diamati pada parameter kadar ekstraktif (30,78 - 82,91 %). Berdasarkan hasil pemeringkatan sederhana yang dilakukan melalui analisis deskriptif dan gerombol diperoleh 13 individu pohon plus terbaik sebagai bahan baku pulp.

Katakunci: Eucalyptus pellita, kimia kayu, selulosa, analisis gerombol, seleksi pohon

 

A Study on Chemical Composition of Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell Wood from Progeny Test Second Generation Tree in Wonogiri, Central Java

Abstract

Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell (E. pellita) is one of the fast growing species, which is being developed through tree breeding program. The development of this species had produced good results in the genetic growth characteristics in the first and second generation of progeny trials. The objectives of this research were determining the variation of wood chemical components, clustering and rating the plus trees to support the development program in next generation of the progeny trial, especially in pulp and paper purposes. The materials were the 61 plus trees of E. pellita trees 9-years-old from second generation of progeny trial, Wonogiri in six different provenances. The sampling used the increment borer system at 90 cm from the surface. Materials from the increment borer were milled to 40 - 60 mesh of wood powder. The wood chemical properties were tested according to ASTM standards. It included ethanol-toluene and hot-water solubles by sequential extraction as well as holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents. Data analysis used descriptive and clustering analysis. The results showed that the range values of ethanol-toluene extractives and hot water content respectively were 1.87 - 10.92 % and 0.64 - 10.00 %. The range values of holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents were 72.89 - 79.91 %, 41.84 - 54.85 % and 22.12 - 36.61 %, respectively. The high values of coefficient of variation were observed in extractive content levels (30,78 - 82,91 %). Based on the simple rating, which was resulted from descriptive and cluster analysis, it gave the best 13 individuals of plus trees for pulp and paper purposes.


Keywords


Eucalyptus pellita; wood chemistry; cellulose; cluster analysis; tree selection

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.6138

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