An Innovative Policy For Rural Development? Rethinking Barriers to Rural Communities Earning Their Living from Forests in Indonesia

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.8575

Ahmad Maryudi(1*)

(1) Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Agro No. 1 Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The government of  Indonesia (GoI) has trialed a number of community forestry schemes, ranging from collaborative management to long-term forest management rights handed to local communities, and implements them in state forest land. This policy shift toward community forestry in Indonesia shows an emerging signal on acknowledgement on the ability of local forest users to manage forest resources sustainably,and gives the people opportunities to benefit from the resources and eventually improve their daily life. With so much of promises community forestry brings, this paper primarily asks why the program is yet to meet the high expectation of rural development, tackling the pervasive rural poverty. It aims to identify,analyze and address key constraints of rural communities in exercising their rights which are conside red as key factors to improve their live lihood and alleviate rural poverty. That the government-initiated community forestry schemes fall short of the initial targets in terms of the extent of state forest land areas managed by to forest communities to a large extent is explained bythe regulatory barriers of tenurial uncertainties and the complexlicensing procedures. Those coupled by the limited capacityas technical assistance rarely provided by government institutions appear to impede local people to secure better livelihood.

Keywords: community forestry, livelihood, rural communities, poverty alleviation, regulatory barriers

 

Inovasi kebijakan untuk pembangunan pedesaan? Mengulas berbagai hambatan masyarakat pedesaan untuk mendapat penghidupan dari dari hutan di Indonesia

Intisari

Pemerintah Indonesia telah meluncurkan berbagai program kehutanan sosial di kawasan hutan negara, mulai dari skema kemitraan sampai dengan pemberian hak kelola hutan bagi masyarakat lokal. Pergeseran paradigma kebijakan menuju kehutanan sosial memunculkan sinyal pengakuan terhadap kemampuan masyarakat lokal dalam mengelola hutan secara lestari, dan memberikan kesempatan bagi mereka untuk memanfaatkan sumberdaya hutan untuk memperbaiki kehidupan sehari-hari. Pertanyaan kunci yang diangkat dalam artikel ini adalah mengapa program kehutanan sosial belum mampu menggapai tujuan mulia untuk memerangi kemiskinan yang sangat akut di pedesaan sekitar hutan. Tujuan dari artikel ini adalah mengidentifikasi, menganalisis dan memecahkan berbagai hambatan yang dipandang sebagai faktor kunci bagi masyarakat pedesaan untuk memperbaiki tingkat penghidupan. Belum optimalnya berbagai program kehutanan sosial yang diluncurkan oleh pemerintah secara garis besar disebabkan oleh ketidakpastian tenurial dan prosedur perijinan yang sangat kompleks. Hal ini diperparah oleh terbatasnya pendampingan teknis yang pada akhirnya menghambat masyarakat pedesaan untuk menggapai penghidupan yang lebih baik.


Keywords


kehutanan sosial; penghidupan; masyarakat pedesaan; pengentasan kemiskinan; hambatan kebijakan

Full Text:

PDF


References

  1. Acharya KP. 2002. Twenty-four years of community forestry in Nepal. International Forestry Review 4(2), 149-156.
  2. Andrianto A, Wollenberg E, Cahyat A, Goenner C, Moeliono M, Limberg G & Iwan R. 2006. District governments and poverty alleviation in forest areas in Indonesia. Governance Brief No. 30. Program Forests dan Governance. Center for International Forestry Research.
  3. Bratamihardja M, Sunito S & Kartasubrata J. 2005. Forest management in Java 1975-1999 : Towards collaborative management. ICRAFT Southeast Asia Working Paper, No.2005-1. ICRAFT Southeast Asia Regional Office, Bogor
  4. Charnley S & Poe MR. 2007. Community forestry in theory and practice: Where are we now ? Annual Review of Anthropology 36, 301-336 
  5. Colchester M. 2002. Bridging the Gap: Challenges to Community Forestry Networking in Indonesia. Learning from International Community Forestry Networks: Indonesia Country Study.
  6. Dahal GR, Atkinson J & Bampton J. 2011. Forest Tenure in Asia: Status and Trends. European Forest Institute–FLEGT Asia Regional Office, Kuala Lumpur.
  7. Dev OP, Yadav NP, Springate-Baginski O, & Soussan J. 2003. Impacts of community forestry on livelihoods in the middle hills of Nepal. Journal of Forest and Livelihood 3(1), 64-77.
  8. Devkota RR. 2010. Interest and Power as Drivers of Community Forestry. Universitätsverlag, Göttingen.
  9. Djamhuri TL. 2008. Community participation in a social forestry program in Central Java, Indonesia: the effect of incentive structure and social capital. Agroforest System 74, 83–96.
  10. Duinker PN, Matakala PW, Chege F & Bouthilier L. 1994. Community forests in Canada: An overview. The Forestry Chronicle 70(6), 711-720.
  11. FAO.1978. Forestry for local community development. FAO Forestry Paper, No.7. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome. 
  12. Gilmour DA & Fisher RJ.1991. Villagers, Forests and Foresters: the Philosophy, Process and Practice of Community Forestry in Nepal. Sahayogi Press, Kathmandu.
  13. Glasmeier AK & Farrigan T. 2005. Understanding community forestry: a qualitative meta-study of the concept, the process, and its potential for poverty alleviation in the United States case. The Geographical Journal 171(1), 56–69.
  14. Hindra B. 2006. Potensi dan kelembagaan hutan rakyat. Seminar of Forest Product Research and Development. Bogor.
  15. Kartodihardjo H, Nugroho B, Rohadi D, Suharjito D & Dermawan A. 2011. Community plantation forests in Indonesia: Challenges and policy recommendations. CIFOR Info Brief. No. 42. November 2011.
  16. Kellert SR, Mehta JN, Ebbin SA, & Lichtenfeld LL. 2000. Community natural resource management: Promise, rhetoric, and reality. Society & Natural Resources 13(8), 705-715
  17. Krogman N. & Beckley T. 2002. Corporate “bail-outs” and local “buyouts”: Pathways to community forestry? Society and Natural Resources 15(2),109-127.
  18. Kusumanto Y & Sirait MT. 2002. Community participation in forest resource management in Indonesia: Policies, practices, constraints and opportunities. Southeast Asia Policy Research Working Paper, No. 28.
  19. Larson AM, Barry D & Dahal GR. 2010. Introduction. In: Larson AD, Barry D, & Dahal GR. (eds.), Forests for People: Community Rights and Forest Tenure Reform. Earthscan, London.
  20. Lindayati R. 2000. Community forestry policies in selected southeast Asian countries. Working Paper 6, Rural Poverty and the Environment Working Paper Series. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.
  21. Maryudi A. 2011. The Contesting Aspirations in the Forests–Actors, Interests and Power in Community Forestry in Java, Indonesia. Goettingen University Press, Goettingen
  22. Maryudi A. 2012. Restoring control over forest resources through administrative procedures: evidence from a community forestry programme in Central Java, Indonesia. Austrian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 5(2), 229-242.
  23. Maryudi A & Krott M. 2012. Poverty Alleviation efforts through a community forestry program in Java, Indonesia. Journal of Sustainable Development 5(2), 43-53.
  24. Mayers J & Vermeulen S. 2002. Company-community forestry partnerships: From raw eals to mutual gains? Instruments for sustainable private sector forestry series. Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London
  25. McCarthy J. 2006. Neoliberalism and the politics of alternatives: community forestry in British Columbia and the United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 96(1), 84-104.
  26. McDermott MH & Schrekenberg K. 2009. Equity in community forestry: insights from North and South. International Forestry Review 11 (2),157-170.
  27. Ministry of Forestry. 2012. Forestry Statistics of Indonesia 2011. Jakarta 
  28. Noordwijk M, Suyanto S, Budidarsono S, Sakuntaladewi N, Roshetko J, Tata H, Galudra G, & Fay C. 2007. Is Hutan Tanaman Rakyat a new paradigm in community based tree planting in Indonesia? ICRAF Working Paper Number 45.
  29. Obidzinski K & Dermawan A. 2010. Smallholder timber plantation development in Indonesia : What is preventing progress? International Forestry Review 12(4),339-348.
  30. Pagdee A, Kim YS & Daugherty PJ. 2006. What makes community forest management successful: a meta-study from community forests throughout the world. Society and Natural Resources 19 (1), 33-52.
  31. Partnership Program. 2011. Mendorong Percepatan Program Hutan Kemasyarakatan dan Hutan Desa. Partnership Policy Paper No. 4/2011. 
  32. Peluso N. 1992. Rich Forests, Poor People: Resource Control and Resistance in Java. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
  33. Poffenberger M. 2006. People in the forest: community forestry experiences from Southeast Asia. Environment and Sustainable Development 5(1), 57-69.
  34. Ribot J C & Peluso NL. 2003. A theory of access. Rural Sociology 68(2), 153-181. 
  35. Royo N & Wells A. 2012. Community based forest management in Indonesia: a review of current practice and regulatory frameworks. The Forest Dialogue on Investing in Locally Controlled Forestry (ILCF).Yogyakarta, 6–9 February 2012.
  36. Schneck J. 2009. Assessing the Viability of HTR Indonesia’s Community Based Forest Plantation Program. Master Thesis. The Nicholas School of the Environment of Duke University.
  37. Shackleton S, Campbell B, Wollenberg E & Edmunds D. 2002. Devolution and community based natural resource management: creating space for local people to participate and benefit? Natural Resource Perspectives 76, 1-6.
  38. Shepherd KR. 1985. Community forestry: concepts and reality. In : Shepherd KR & Richter HV (eds.) Managing the Tropical Forest. Centre for Development Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra. pp.317-327.
  39. Shrestha KK. 2005. Collective Action and Equity in Nepalese Community Forestry. PhD Thesis, School of Geosciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney. 343 p.
  40. Sikor T, Gritten D, Atkinson J, Huy B, Dahal GR, Duangsathaporn K, Hurahura F, Phanvilay K, Maryudi A, Pulhin J, Ramirez MA, Win S, Toh S, Vaz J, Sokchea T, Marona S & Yaqiao Z. 2013. Community forestry in Asia and the Pacific: Pathway to inclusive development. RECOFTC, Bangkok
  41. Sunderlin W, Artono A, Palupi S, Rochyana & Susanti E. 1990. Social Equity and Social Forestry in Java: Preliminary Findings from Four Case Studies. Network Paper 10a. Social Forestry Network. Overseas Development Institute. London.
  42. Sunderlin WD, Hatcher J, & Liddle M. 2008. From exclusion to ownership? Challenges and opportunities in advancing forest tenure reform. Rights and Resources Initiative, Washington DC
  43. Sunderlin WD. 2006. Poverty alleviation through community forestry in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam: An assessment of the potential. Forest Policy and Economics 8(4), 386-396.
  44. Thompson J, Elmendorf W, McDonough M, & Burban L. 2005. Participation and conflict: lessons learned from community forestry. Journal of Forestry 103(4), 174-178.
  45. Westoby J. 1987. The Purpose of Forests: Follies of Development. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.8575

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1206 | views : 548

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2014 Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan




© Redaksi Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan
Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada
Jl. Agro No 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281
Telp. (0274) 512102, 550541, 6491420
Fax. (0274) 550541 E-mail : jik@ugm.ac.id
website : jurnal.ugm.ac.id/jikfkt/

 

Indexed by :

 

Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan/Journal Forest Science is under the license of Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International

Creative Commons License

View My Stats