Mahaarum Kusuma Pertiwi(1*)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author



This essay will analyze the European Union framework of ethnic profiling in the aim of combating terrorism that will be contrasted to the principle of non-discrimination that is fundamental in the European regime of Human Rights. Research question in this essay is whether the European human rights regime consistently holds the principle of non-discriminatory in justifying the use of ethnic profiling in combating terrorism.



Makalah ini akan membahas mengenai kebijakan profil etnis (ethnic profiling) dalam rangka memerangi terorisme di Uni Eropa yang akan dikontraskan dengan prinsip non-diskriminasi yang juga merupakan hal penting dan mendasar dalam perlindungan Hak Asasi Manusia di Eropa. Permasalahan mendasar yang dikaji dalam studi ini adalah apakah Uni Eropa konsisten dalam memegang prinsip non-diskriminasi ketika membenarkan penggunaan kebijakan profil etnis dalam memberantas terorisme.


Ethnic Profiling; Terrorism; Non-Discrimination

Full Text:



A. Books

Aradau, Claudia and Rens van Munster, 2007, “Governing Terrorism Through Risk: Taking Precautions, (un)Knowing the Future” in European Journal of International Relations, Vol.13 (1), pp.89-115.

Beck, Ulrich, 1992, Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. Sage Publications, London.

Bentham, Jeremy,1776 (Second edition enlarged 1823) A Fragment on Government, London Printed for W. Pickering and E. Wilson, London.

______________, 1789, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Duffy, Helen, 2005, The ‘War on Terror’ and the Framework of International Law, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Ellington, James W, 1993, Immanuel Kant. Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals, Hackett Publishing.

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2010, Towards More Effective Policing. Understanding and Preventing Discriminatory Ethnic Profiling: A Guide, Publication Office of the European Union.

Gregor, Mary (Ed.), 1998, Immanuel Kant. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Mill, John Stuart,1863, Utilitarianism, Parker, Son, and Bourn, West Strand.

Ministry of Justice, 2010, Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2008/09 A Ministry of Justice publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991.

Nussbaum, Martha C., 2000, Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby, 2007, The Risk Society at War. Terror, Technology and Strategy in The Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

B. Journal Articles

Choudhry, Sujit and Roach, Kent, 2003, "Racial and Ethnic Profiling: Statutory Discretion, Constitutional Remedies, and Democratic Accountability", in Osgoode Hall Law Journal, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2003.

Giddens, Anthony, 1999, “Risk and Responsibility” in Modern Law Review, Vol. 62, Issue 1.

Legewie, Joscha, 2016, "Racial Profiling and Use of Force in Police Stops: How Local Events Trigger Periods of Increased Discrimination", in American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 122, No. 2, September 2016.

C. Internet

ENAR Fact Sheet 40, 2009, "Ethnic Profiling", Open Society Justice Initiative, available at, accessed on 29 November 2013., accessed on 29 November 2013.

BBC Editor, “Thames Valley Police Stop and Search ‘Discrimination’ Drop”,, accessed on 26 November 2017.

D. Decisions

Case of Gillan and Quinton v. The United Kingdom in The European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg, Application Number 4158/05, Decided on 12 January 2010.

Her Majesty The Queen v. Tom Dudley and Edwin Stephens in the High Court of Justice (Queen’s Bench Division) 1884, case number 14 QBD 273 DC.

E. Treaties/Statutes

Council Directive 2000/43/EC of 29 June 2000 on Implementing the Principle of Equal Treatment between Persons Irrespective of Racial or Ethnic Origin.

Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Rome 1950.

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 34/180 of 18 December 1979 entry into force 3 September 1981, in accordance with article 27(1).

European Parliament published recommendations to the Council on 24 April 2009 regarding the problem of profiling, notably on the basis of ethnicity and race, in counter-terrorism, law enforcement, immigration, customs and border control. (2008/2020(INI)).

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. Adopted and opened for signature and ratification by General Assembly resolution 2106 (XX) of 21 December 1965 entry into force 4 January 1969, in accordance with Article 19.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966). 999 UNTS 171.

Protocol No. 12 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms Rome, 4.XI.2000.

United Kingdom’s The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984.

United Kingdoms’s Terrorism Act 2000.

United Nations Human Rights Committee, General Comment 29, States of Emergency (article 4), U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.11 (2001).

United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2654 | views : 2763


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Mahaarum Kusuma Pertiwi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Mimbar Hukum Indexed by:

DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journal) Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE) COREWorldCatLIVIVOCopac JISTHarvard LibraryElectronic Journals LibraryColumbia University LibrariesLeiden University LibrariesUniversity of Saskatchewan-CanadaGent University LibraryWestern Theological SeminaryUniversity of OxfordThe University of SheffieldThe University of Manchester Toronto Public LibraryEbsco  

Member of :


MIMBAR HUKUM ISSN: 0852-100X(print), ISSN: 2443-0994(online)