Validation of St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) at Respira Lung Hospital Yogyakarta

P.D. Pratiwi(1*), Dyah Aryani Perwitasari(2)

(1) Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahmad Dahlan University, Yogyakarta
(2) Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahmad Dahlan University, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author


The prevalence of COPD in Indonesia is increasing. Over the world, COPD is predicted to be the third cause of death in 2020. As the chronic disease, quality of life became one of the outcome treatments of COPD. This research was aimed to validate Indonesian version of St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) Indonesia. This study used cross sectional design approach from June to July 2016, conducted at Respira Lung Hospital, Yogyakarta. Data was collected from medical record and direct interviews to patients using SGRQ. An inclusion criterion was adult patients with COPD. Some statistical tests were performed to analyze construct validity, known group validity and reliability of Indonesian version of SGRQ. We recruited 41 respondents. The SGRQ meet reliability criteria with the value of Cronbach alpha are > 0.7 for symptom, activity and impact domains. There are 17 questions and 10 questions in symptom, activity and impact domains which do not meet convergent and discriminant validity. The significant difference is found in symptom domain for the 17-48 and 49-80 year age. The SGRQ Indonesian version is not valid enough to be used in clinical practice but still reliable.


SGRQ; Indonesia; COPD; validity

Full Text:



Health Ministry. Pedoman Pengendalian Penyakit Paru Obstruktif Kronis (PPOK). Jakarta; 2008.

Pauwels RA, Rabe KF. Burden and clinical features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Lancet (London, England). 2004;364(9434):613-620. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16855-4.

Wiklund I. Assessment of patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials: the example of health-related quality of life. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2004;18(3):351-363. doi:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2004.00234.x.

Chang C-H. Patient-reported outcomes measurement and management with innovative methodologies and technologies. Qual Life Res. 2007;16 Suppl 1:157-166. doi:10.1007/s11136-007-9196-2.

Jones PW, Quirk FH, Baveystock CM, Littlejohns P. A self-complete measure of health status for chronic airflow limitation. The St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;145(6):1321-1327. doi:10.1164/ajrccm/145.6.1321.

Swigris JJ, Brown KK, Behr J, et al. The SF-36 and SGRQ: validity and first look at minimum important differences in IPF. Respir Med. 2010;104(2):296-304. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2009.09.006.

Lo C, Liang W-M, Hang L-W, Wu T-C, Chang Y-J, Chang C-H. A psychometric assessment of the St. George’s respiratory questionnaire in patients with COPD using Rasch model analysis. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2015;13:131. doi:10.1186/s12955-015-0320-7.

Al-Shair K, Atherton GTW, Kennedy D, Powell G, Denning DW, Caress A. Validity and reliability of the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire in assessing health status in patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Chest. 2013;144(2):623-631. doi:10.1378/chest.12-0014.

Adnan, Perwitasari DA, Mulyani UA 2014. Reliability and Validity of St George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) into Indonesian Version. Int J Public Health. 2014;3(3):179-184.

Anthoine E, Moret L, Regnault A, Sebille V, Hardouin J-B. Sample size used to validate a scale: a review of publications on newly-developed patient reported outcomes measures. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2014;12:176. doi:10.1186/s12955-014-0176-2.

Hasnaniar. Hubungan Pola Hidup terhadap Kualitas Hidup pasien Asma di Instalasi Rawat Jalan Rumah Sakit Khusus Paru Respira Yogyakarta. 2015.

Perwitasari DA, Atthobari J, Dwiprahasto I, et al. Translation and validation of EORTC QLQ-C30 into Indonesian version for cancer patients in Indonesia. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2011;41(4):519-529. doi:10.1093/jjco/hyq243.

Devereux G. ABC of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Definition, epidemiology, and risk factors. BMJ. 2006;332(7550):1142-1144. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7550.1142.

Hackett PH. Caffeine at high altitude: java at base cAMP. High Alt Med Biol. 2010;11(1):13-17. doi:10.1089/ham.2009.1077.

R T. Ilmu Penyakit Paru. Jakarta: Trans Info media; 2010.

Kim V, Criner GJ. The chronic bronchitis phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: features and implications. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2015;21(2):133-141. doi:10.1097/MCP.0000000000000145.

Agarwal A, Makker K, Sharma R. Clinical relevance of oxidative stress in male factor infertility: an update. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2008;59(1):2-11. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0897.2007.00559.x.

Morishita-Katsu M, Nishimura K, Taniguchi H, et al. The COPD assessment test and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire: are they equivalent in subjects with COPD? Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2016;11:1543-1551. doi:10.2147/COPD.S104947.

Barr JT, Schumacher GE, Freeman S, LeMoine M, Bakst AW, Jones PW. American translation, modification, and validation of the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire. Clin Ther. 2000;22(9):1121-1145. doi:10.1016/S0149-2918(00)80089-2.

Liang W-M, Chen J-J, Chang C-H, et al. An empirical comparison of the WHOQOL-BREF and the SGRQ among patients with COPD. Qual Life Res. 2008;17(5):793-800. doi:10.1007/s11136-008-9326-5.

El Rhazi K, Nejjari C, Benjelloun MC, et al. Validation of the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire in patients with COPD or asthma in Morocco. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006;10(11):1273-1278.

Stallberg B, Nokela M, Ehrs P-O, Hjemdal P, Jonsson EW. Validation of the clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) in primary care. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2009;7:26. doi:10.1186/1477-7525-7-26.

Hajiro T, Nishimura K, Tsukino M, Ikeda A, Oga T. Stages of disease severity and factors that affect the health status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir Med. 2000;94(9):841-846. doi:10.1053/rmed.2000.0804.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 4005 | views : 12899


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 JURNAL MANAJEMEN DAN PELAYANAN FARMASI (Journal of Management and Pharmacy Practice)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

©Jurnal Manajemen dan Pelayanan Farmasi
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Gadjah Mada
Creative Commons License
View My Stats