Effect of Vapor Heat Treatment on the Mortality of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Quality of Mango cv. Arumanis


Tri Wulan Widya Lestari(1*), Arman Wijonarko(2), Wayan Murdita(3), Suputa Suputa(4)

(1) Gorontalo Agricultural Quarantine Office Jln. Drs. Achmad Najamuddin No. 21, Gorontalo 96128
(2) Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Pest Forecasting Institute, Ministry of Agriculture Jln. Raya Kaliasin Tromol Pos 1 Jatisari, Kotabaru-Karawang, West Java 41374
(4) Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author


Arumanis is a superior export variety mango from Indonesia. One inhibiting factor on the production of this fruit variety is the infestation of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit fly. Vapor heat treatment was recommended by ISPM No. 28 of 2007 as an effective treatment in eradicating fruit flies. This research was aimed to find out the optimum temperature and the duration of vapor heat treatment on the mortality of egg and larvae of B. dorsalis. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Vapor Heat Treatment, BBPOPT, Jatisari, from October 2016 to January 2017. The observed parameters were temperature, duration of treatment, mortality of egg and larvae of fruit fly, and fruit quality. The results showed that vapor heat treatment at 47°C for 40 minutes (min) was effective to reduce the number of eggs and larvae of B. dorsalis and had no negative impact on the fruit quality.



Buah mangga varietas Arumanis merupakan varietas mangga ekspor unggulan Indonesia. Salah satu faktor pembatas produksi buah mangga varietas Arumanis adalah lalat buah B. dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Perlakuan uap panas direkomendasikan oleh ISPM Nomor 28 tahun 2007 sebagai tindakan perlakuan yang efektif dalam mengeradikasi lalat buah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui suhu dan waktu optimum perlakuan uap panas terhadap mortalitas telur dan larva B. dorsalis pada buah mangga varietas Arumanis tanpa merusak kualitas buah. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Vapor Heat Treatment, BBPOPT, Jatisari, pada Oktober 2016 sampai dengan Januari 2017. Parameter yang diamati adalah suhu, lamanya waktu perlakuan, mortalitas telur dan larva lalat buah, dan kualitas buah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan uap panas pada suhu 47°C selama 40 menit terbukti efektif membunuh telur dan larva B. dorsalis dan tidak berdampak negatif terhadap kualitas buah.


Bactrocera dorsalis; fruit fly mortality; mango cv. Arumanis; quarantine; vapor heat

Full Text:



Akrom, M., E. Hidayanto, & Susilo. 2014. Kajian Pengaruh Radiasi Sinar Gamma terhadap Susut Bobot pada Buah Jambu Biji Merah Selama Penyimpanan [Study Effect of Gamma Radiation on Weight Shrinkage of Red Guava Fruit During Storage]. Indonesian Journal of Physics Education 10: 86−91.

APHIS. 1985. Plant Protection and Quarantine Treatment Manual Section III. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 24 p.

APHIS. 2011. Treatment Manual, Nonchemical Treatment: Heat, Vapor Heat and Force Hot Air Treatment. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 936 p.

Armstrong, J.W., J. Tang, & S. Wang. 2009. Thermal Death Kinetics of Mediterranean, Malaysian, Melon, and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Eggs and Third Instars. Journal of Economic Entomology 102: 522−532.

BPS. 2016. Produksi Mangga di Indonesia Tahun 2011−2015 [Mango Production in Indonesia in 2011−2015]. Badan Pusat Statistika. http://www. bps.go. id/, modified 16/7/16.

Begum, S.A., M. Faiaz, Ahmed, & M.M. Rahman. 2009. Effect of Cooking Temperature and Storage Period on Preservation of Water Soluble Vitamin C Content in Citrus macroptera and Moringa oleifera lunk. Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry 2: 255−261.

Chan, H.T., S.Y. Tam, & S.T. Seo. 1981. Papaya Polygalacturonase and its Role in Thermally Injured Ripening Fruit. Journal Food Science 46: 190−197.

Clarke, A.R., K.F. Armstrong, A.E. Carmichael, J.R. Milne, S. Raghu, G.K. Roderick, & D.K. Yeates. 2005. Invasive Phytophagous Pests Arising through a Recent Tropical Evolutionary Radiation: The Bactrocera dorsalis complex of Fruit Flies. Annual Review of Entomology 50: 293−319.

Corcoran, R.J., N.W. Heather, & T.A. Heard. 1993. Vapor Heat Treatment for Zucchini Infested with Bactrocera cucumis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 86: 66−69.

D’hallewin, G. & M. Schirra. 2000. Structural Changes of Epicuticular Wax and Storage Response of ‘Marsh’ Grapefruits After Ethanol Dips at 21 and 50°C. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Postharvest Science: 441−442.

Djioua, T., F. Charles, F. Lopez-Lauri, H. Filgueiras, A. Coudret, M.F. Jr, M.N. Ducsmp-Collin, & H. Sallanon. 2009. Improving the Storage of Minimally Processed Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) by Hot Water Treatments. Journal Postharvest of Bilogy 52: 221−226.

Emekci, M., S. Navarro, J.E. Donahaye, M. Rindner, & A. Azrieli. 2001. Respiration of Stored Product Pests in Hermetic Conditions, p. 26−35. In Donahaye, E.J., Navarro, S. & Leesch J.G. (eds.), Proc Int Conf Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Fresno, CA. USA. Researche Gate. https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/, modified 2/1/17.

Hansen, J.D. & J.A. Johnson. 2007. Heat Treatments for Postharvest Pest Control: Theory and Practice, p. 1−26. In J. Tang, E. Mitchan, S. Wang, & S. Lurie (eds.), GAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom.

Hasbullah, R., S. Kawasaki, T. Kojima, & T. Akinaga. 2001. Effect of Heat Treatments on Respiration and Quality of ‘Irwin’ Mango. Journal of the Society of Agricultural Structures 32: 59−67.

Hasbullah, R. 2007. Penerapan Teknologi Karantina, Upaya Membuka Peluang Ekspor Buah-Buahan Indonesia [Application of Quarantine Technology: An Opportunity to Increase Indonesian Fruit Export]. Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian 21: 1−12.

Hasbullah, R., Dadang, & E. Marlisa. 2009. Kajian Disinfestasi Lalat Buah (Bactrocera dorsalis) dengan Perlakuan Uap Panas (Vapor Heat Treatment) pada Mangga Gedong Gincu [Study on Disinfestation of Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) using Vapor Heat Treatment on Gedong Gincu Mango]. Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian 23: 47−52.

Hasbullah, R., E. Rohaeti, & R. Syarief. 2013. Fruit Fly Disinfestations of Star Fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) Using Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT), p. 147−153. In H.K. Purwadaria, G. Srzednicki, & S. Kanlayanarat (eds.), Proceedings of the Second Asia Pasific Symposium on Postharvest Research, Education and Extension. Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Heard, T.A., N.W. Heather, & R.J. Corcoran. 1991. Dosage-Mortality Relationships for Eggs and Larvae of Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae) Immersed in Hot Water. Journal of Economic Entomology 84: 1768−1770.

Heard, T.A., N.W. Heather, & P.M. Peterson. 1992. Relative Tolerance to Vapor Heat Treatment of Eggs and Larvae of Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mangoes. Journal of Economic Entomology 85: 461−463.

Helmiyesi, R.B. Hastuti, & E. Prihastanti. 2008. Pengaruh Lama Penyimpanan terhadap Kadar Gula dan Vitamin C pada Buah Jeruk Siam [Effect of Storage Duration on Sugar Content and Vitamin C on Citrus Fruit]. Jurnal Anatomi dan Fisiologi 16: 33−37.

Hosking, G. 2007. Literature Review-Temperature Mortality Threshold for Insect. Commercial in Confidence Client Report No. 12261. CSIRO, Australia. 20 p.

IJ-EPA. 2013. Report on Plant Quarantine Vapor Heat Disinfestation Treatment against Three Species of Fruit Flies in Mango ‘Gedong”. Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnersip Agreement, unpublished. Pest Forecsating Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Indonesia. 175 p.

ISPM 28. 2007. Phytosanitary Treatments for Regulated Pests. International Standart Phytosanitary Measure. IPPC, FAO, Rome. 11 p.

Jacobi, K.K, L.S. Wong, & J.E Giles. 1993. Lychee (Lichi chinensis Sonn.) Fruit Quality Following Vapour Heat Treatment and Cool Storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology 3: 111−119.

Jacobi, K.K., L.S. Wong, & J.E. Giles. 1996. Postharvest Quality of Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) Following High Humidity Hot Air Disinfestation and Hot Water Disease Control Treatments. Postharvest Biology and Technology 7: 309−316.

Jacobi, K.K. & J.E. Giles. 1997. Quality of ‘Kensington’ Mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) Fruit Following Combined Vapor Heat Disinfestations and Hot Water Disease Control Treatments. Postharvest Biology and Technology 12: 285–292.

Jacobi, K.K., E.A. Macrae, & S.E. Hetherington. 2001. Postharvest Heat Disinfestation Treatments of Mango Fruit. Journal Elsevier 89: 171−193.

Kim, Y., A.J. Lounds-Singleton, & S.T. Talcott. 2009. Antioxidant Phytochemical and Quality Changes Associated with Hot Water Immersion Treatment of Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.). Journal Food Chem 115: 989−993.

Le, T.N., C.C. Shiesh, & H.L. Lin. 2010. Effect of Vapor Heat and Hot Water Treatments on Disease Incidence and Quality of Taiwan Native Strain Mango Fruits. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 12: 673−678.

Loganathan, M., D.S. Jayas, P.G. Fields, & N.D.G. White. 2011. Low and High Temperatures for The Control of Cowpea Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Chickpeas. Journal of Stored Products Research 47: 244−248.

Manurung, B., P. Prastowo, & E.E. Tarigan. 2012. Pola Aktivitas Harian dan Dinamika Populasi Lalat Buah Bactrocera dorsalis Complex pada Pertanaman Jeruk di Dataran Tinggi Kabupaten Karo Provinsi Sumatera Utara [Daily Activity Pattern and Population Dynamic of Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis Complex on Citrus Plantation at Highland Karo District North Sumatera Province]. Jurnal Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Tropika 12: 103−110.

Moss, J.I. & E.B. Jang. 1991. Effects of Age and Metabolic Stress on Heat Tolerance of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Eggs. Journal of Economic Entomology 84: 537−541.

Neven, L.G. 1998. Respiratory Response of Fifth Instar Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to Rapidly Changing Temperatures. Journal of Economic Entomology 91: 302−308.

Neven, L.G. 2000. Physiological Responses of Insects to Heat. Postharvest Biology and Technology 21: 103–111.

Omura, K., T. Dohino, M. Tanno, I. Miyazaki, & N. Suzuki. 2014. Vapor Heat Mortality Tests on The Eggs of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, Infesting Different Fruit Shape of Fresh Mango. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Japan 50: 1−8.

Purnama, I.N., M. Sarma, & M. Najib. 2014. Strategi Peningkatan Pemasaran Mangga di Pasar Internasional [The Enhancement Strategies for Indonesian Mango Marketing in International Market]. Journal of Horticulture 24: 85−93.

Purwoko, B.S. & F.S. Magdalena. 1999. Pengaruh Perlakuan Pasca Panen dan Suhu Simpan terhadap Daya Simpan dan Kualitas Buah Mangga (Mangifera indica L.) varietas Arumanis [Effect of Postharvest Treatments and Storage Temperatures on Shelflife and Quality of Mango cv Arumanis]. Buletin Agronomi 27: 16−24.

Rohaeti, E., R. Syarief, & R. Hasbullah. 2010. Perlakuan Uap Panas (Vapor Heat Treatment) untuk Disinfestasi Lalat Buah dan Mempertahankan Mutu Buah Belimbing (Averrhoa carambola L.) [Vapor Heat Treatment (VHT) for Fruit Fly Disinfestation and Maintaining Starfruit Quality (Averrhoa carambola L.)]. Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian 24: 45−50.

Schirra, M., G.D. Hallewin, S. Ben-Yehoshua, & E. Fallik. 2000. Host-Pathogen Interactions Modulated by Heat Treatment. Postharvest Biology and Technology 21: 71−85.

Schutze, M.K., N. Aketarawong, W. Amornsak, K.F. Armstrong, A.A. Augustinos, N. Barr, W. Bo, K. Bourtzis, L.M. Boykin, C. Caceres et al. 2014. Synonymization of Key Pest Species withint the Bactrocera dorsalis Species Complex (Diptera : Tephritidae): Taxonomic Changes Based on a Review of 20 Years of Integrative Morphological, Molecular, Cytogenetic, Behavioural, and Chemoecological Data. Journal Systematic Entomology: 1−16.

Shalom, N.B., J. Hanzon, R. Pinto, & S. Lurie. 1996. Cell Wall Changes and Partial Prevention of Fruit Softening in Prestorage Heat Treated ‘Anna’ Apples. Journal Science Food Agriculture 72: 231–234.

Singh, R.P. & D.R. Heldman. 2001. Introduction to Food Engineering 3rd ed. Acad Press, San Diego, California. 892 p.

Sunagawa, K., K. Kume, & R. Iwaizumi. 1987. The Effectiveness of Vapor Heat Treatment against the Melon Fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, in Mango and Fruits Tolerance to The Treatment. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Japan 23: 13−20.

Suputa, Y.A. Trisyono, E. Martono, & S.S. Siwi. 2010. Update on the Host Range of Different Species of Fruit Flies in Indonesia. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia 16: 62−75.

Toshiyuki D., M. Takahiko, M. Shin-ichiro, Y. Masanori, & M. Isao. 2014. Heat and Cold Tolerance of Various Aged Eggs of Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae). Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Japan 50: 63−69.

Wang, S.Y. & M.J. Camp. 2000. Temperatures after Bloom Affect Plant Growth and Fruit Quality of Strawberry. Journal Scientific Horticultura 85: 183–199.

Warji, Suroso, & R. Hasbullah. 2008. Pendugaan Kerusakan Mangga Arumanis Akibat Lalat Buah Menggunakan Atenuansi Ultrasonik [Prediction of Arumanis Mango Damage Caused by Fruit Using Ultrasonic Attenuation]. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Pertanian. Yogyakarta, Indonesia. 13 p.

Wigglesworth, V.B. 1977. The Principle of Insect Physiology 7th ed. English Language Book Society. Chapman and Hall, London. 827 p.
Wills, R.B.H., T.H. Lee, D. Graham, & W.B.M. Glasson, E.G. Hall. 1989. Postharvest: An Introduction to The Physiology and Handling of Fruit and Vegetables, 3rd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 253 p.

Yoshinaga, M., S. Masaki, & T. Dohino. 2009. Vapor Heat Mortality Tests on the Eggs of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, Infesting Different Sizes and Varieties of Fresh Mango. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Japan 45: 41−47.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.23606

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 4389 | views : 2560


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia ISSN 1410-1637 (print), ISSN 2548-4788 (online) is published by the Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, in collaboration with Indonesian Entomological Society (Perhimpunan Entomologi Indonesia, PEI) and Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia, PFI). The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.  

View website statistics