Changes in Vegetation on Mount Agung Volcano Bali Indonesia

Sutomo Sutomo(1*), Luthfi Wahab(2)

(1) Bali Botanical Garden, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)
(2) AF GIS and Remote Sensing Consultant and Training, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author


Volcanic activity is a major natural disturbance that can catastrophically change an ecosystem over a short time scale. The eruption of Mt. Agung strato-volcano in 1963-1964 was considered among the most important volcanic event of the 20th century due to its effect on global climate. Studies on vegetation and landscape of Mt. Agung post-1970-1980 has been scarce. The current eruption of Mount Agung in June-July 2018, brought awareness of the importance urge to document the past and current landscape along with vegetation on Mt. Agung. Our study aimed to utilize remote sensing technique to explore the pattern of current (2017) land cover and vegetation density on Mt. Agung and estimate of vegetated areas and whether it has changed from the past. LANDSAT 8 images ( were used in this study. Supervised classification in ENVI was employed to obtain land use or land cover of the Mt. Agung area. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was also calculated using the feature in the ARC GIS. Online web-based application, REMAP was used to obtain information on past and present condition of the crater of Mt. Agung to see whether there have been changes in vegetated areas around the crater using REMAP ( Results showed there are basically five main landcover that can be recognized namely forest (20758.23 ha), settlement (4058.37 ha), water area (41606.64 ha), open area (15335.64 ha) and farming (34554.78 ha). Our NDVI analysis also resulted in areas with have high density (78836.04 ha), medium density (15490.26 ha) and also no vegetation (31008.24 ha). Using web-based GIS application REMAP, we found that there has been an increase (approximately 1 km2) in vegetation cover from the 1980s to 2016.  The changes in vegetation near the crater of Mt. Agung is relatively slow when compared to another volcano such as Mt. Merapi. Remote sensing application has enabled us to obtain information on vegetation change relatively easily compared to conduct an extensive on-ground survey where more time and funding is needed.


Vegetation; Mt Agung; Bali; LANDSAT,; REMAP

Full Text:



Antos, J.A. & Zobel, D.B., 2005, Plant responses in forest of the Tephra-fall zone. In: Ecological responses to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (eds V. H. Dale, F. J. Swanson and C. M. Crisafulli) p. 47. Springer, New York.

Arinasa, I.B.K., 2017, An Alphabetical List of Plant Species Cultivated in Bali Botanical Garden. Kebun Raya "Eka Karya" Bali LIPI, Tabanan.

Arno, S.F., Sneck, K.M. & Forest, I., 1977, A method for determining fire history in coniferous forests of the mountain west.

Bardintzeff, J.M., 1984, Merapi Volcano (Java, Indonesia) and Merapi-type nuees ardentes. Bulletin Volcanology 47.

Chuvieco, E. & Congalton, R.G., 1989, Application of remote sensing and geographic information systems to forest fire hazard mapping. Remote sensing of Environment 29, 147-59.

Dilmy, A., 1965, Pioneer plants found one year after the 1963 eruption of Mt. Agung in Bali. Pacific Science 19, 498-501.

Eriksson, O. & Ehrlén, J., 1992, Seed and microsite limitation of recruitment in plant populations. Oecologia 91, 360-4.

Haddad, N.M., Brudvig, L.A., Clobert, J., Davies, K.F., Gonzalez, A., Holt, R.D., Lovejoy, T.E., Sexton, J.O., Austin, M.P. & Collins, C.D., 2015, Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Science Advances 1, e1500052.

Jumpponen, A., Väre, H., Mattson, K.G., Ohtonen, R. & Trappe, J.M., 1999, Characterization of ‘safe sites’ for pioneers in primary succession on recently deglaciated terrain. Journal of Ecology 87, 98-105.

Keane, R.E., Burgan, R. & van Wagtendonk, J., 2001, Mapping wildland fuels for fire management across multiple scales: integrating remote sensing, GIS, and biophysical modeling. International Journal of Wildland Fire 10, 301-19.

Lillesand, T.M., Kiefer, R.W. & Chipman, J., 2008, Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

del Moral, R., & Wood, D.M., 1993, Early primary succession on a barren volcanic plain at Mount St. Helens, Washington. American Journal of Botany80, 981-91.

Murray, N.J., Keith, D.A., Simpson, D., Wilshire, J.H. & Lucas, R.M., 2017a, REMAP: An online remote sensing application for land cover classification and monitoring. bioRxiv, 212464.

Murray, N.J., Keith, D.A., Simpson, D., Wilshire, J.H. & Lucas, R.M., 2017b, REMAP: The remote sensing ecosystem monitoring and assessment pipeline

Sankaran, M., 2001, Disturbance, diversity and community dynamics in a southern Indian savanna-grassland ecosystem. In: Biology p. 313. Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York.

Scheffer, M., Carpenter, S., Foley, J.A., Folke, C. & Walker, B., 2001, Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413, 591-6.

Self, S. & Rampino, M.R., 2012, The 1963-1964 eruption of Agung volcano (Bali, Indonesia). Bulletin of Volcanology 74, 1521-36.

Sutomo, 2010, Plant Succession Following Nuèes Ardentes of Mt. Merapi Volcano, Java Indonesia. In: Plant Biology p. 123. University of Western Australia, Perth.

Sutomo, 2013, Ecological Succession on Volcanic Ecosystem of Mount Merapi Indonesia and Its Implication For Restoration. SEAMEO-BIOTROP, Bogor.

Sutomo & Hasanbahri, S., 2008, Dampak Bencana Awan Panas Erupsi Merapi Tahun 2006 Terhadap Hutan Pinus di Wilayah Kaliadem Yogyakarta Menggunakan Model Non Metric Multidimensional Scalling Serta Respon dan Harapan Pemulihannya [Disaster Impacts of 2006 Merapi Eruption on Pine Forests in the Kaliadem, Yogyakarta using Non Metric Multidimensional Scaling Model, Response and Hope for Recovery]. Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Mitigasi Bencana 3, 1-8.

Sutomo, Hobbs, R.J. & Cramer, V.A., 2011, Plant community establishment on the volcanic deposit following nuees ardentes of Mount Merapi: diversity and floristic variation. Biodiversitas 12, 86-91.

Tsuyuzaki, S., Titus, J.H. & del Moral, R., 1997, Seedling establishment patterns on the pumice plain, Mount St. Helens, Washington. Journal of Vegetation Science 8, 727-34.

van Wilgen B., Biggs, H., Mare, N. & O'Regan S., 2000, A fire history of the savanna ecosystems in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, between 1941 and 1996. South African Journal of Science 96.

Verlinden, A. & Laamanen, R., 2006, Long term fire scar monitoring with remote sensing in northern namibia: relations between fire frequency, rainfall, land cover, fire management and trees. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 112, 231–53.

Weill, A., 2004, Volcanoes. Saddleback educational publishing, California.

Whitten, T., Soeriaatmadja, R.E. & Afiff, S.A., 1996, The ecology of Indonesia series volume II: The ecology of Java and Bali. Periplus, Hongkong.

Yuniasih, B., 2017, Succession of vegetation in Merapi Volcano using NDVI index, Agroista: Jurnal Agroteknologi 1.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2673 | views : 2526


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editoral address:

Faculty of Biology, UGM

Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

ISSN: 2540-9581 (online)