The Alliance to “Civilize” the East Indies Government and Catholic Missionaries in Manggarai-Flores

https://doi.org/10.22146/kawistara.54100

Ricardo Vargas Posada(1*), Bernard Adeney-Risakotta(2), Dicky Sofjan(3)

(1) Indonesian Consortion for Religious Studies (ICRS)
(2) Indonesian Consortium for Religious Studies (ICRS)
(3) Indonesian Consortium for Religious Studies (ICRS)
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The present paper deals with the reestablishment of Catholic missionary activity in the Dutch East Indies during the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth. It pays particular attention to the arrival of missionaries in western Flores in the twentieth century, when conversion to Catholicism saw a spectacular growth in the Manggarai region. It delves into the complex interaction of government officials, missionaries and local leaders and how particular social practices and economic modes of production were advanced. It aims to understand how the particular set of civilizing discourses that the missionaries upheld at the time dovetailed with the objectives of the Dutch colonial government. It relies on Critical Discourse Analysis to analyze the contents of the article The Scientific Role of the Missionary, by Monseigneur Alexander Le Roy, superior general of the Congregation of the Holy Spirit, which appeared in prominent publications of the main Catholic congregation working in Flores during the twentieth century, the Society of the Divine Word (SVD). However, it demonstrates that the ideologues of Catholic missiology of the time, such as Monseigneur Le Roy, went beyond the civilizing discourses on development. Furthermore, it argues that many of the progressive stances that characterize the church in Flores today can be traced back to the ideas espoused by their missionary forefathers.  


Keywords


Catholic Mission; Manggarai; Colonialism; Critical Discourse Analysis, Alexandre Le Roy.

Full Text:

PDF


References

- Aritonang, J. S. and Steenbrink, K.A. eds. (2008). A History of Christianity in Indonesia, Leiden and Boston: Brill. Badan Pusat Statistik Indonesia. (2010).

- Sensus Penduduk 2010, Jakarta: BPS. Accessed on 20 November 2019. Retrieved from https://ntt.bps.go.id/subject/108/agama.html#subjekViewTab3.Accessed on 15 November 2019.

- Barnes, R.H. (2009). A temple, a mission and a war. Jesuit missionaries and local culture in East Flores in the nineteenth century. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 165 (1), pp. 32-61.

- Comaroff, J. (1985). Body of power, spirit of resistance, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

- Dietrich, S. (1983). Flores in the nineteenth century: Aspects of Dutch Colonialism on a non-profitable island. Indonesia Circle. School of Oriental & African Studies. Newsletter, 11 (31), pp. 39-58. ______. (1992).

- Mission, local culture and the “Catholic Ethnology” of Pater Schmidt. Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford,23 (2), pp. 111- 125. Accessed on 10 November 2019. Retrieved from https://epub.ub.uni- muenchen.de/10350/1/dietrich_stefan_10350.pdf

- Ducol, B. (2007). Le père Alexandre Le Roy missionaire au Zanguebar 1881- 1892. Histoires et Missions Chrétiennes, (4), pp. 47-70. Accessed on 25 November 2019. Retrieved from https://www.cairn.info/revue-histoire-monde-et-cultures-religieuses1-2007-4-page-47.htm

- Erb, M. (1997). Contested Time and Space: Constructions of History in Todo, Manggarai (Western Flores, Indonesia). Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 28 (1), pp. 47-77.

- Flowerdew, J. and Richardson, J.E. eds. (2018). The Routledge Handbook of Critical Discourse Analysis, New York: Routledge.

- Fountain, P., Bush, R. and Feener, M. eds. (2015). Religion and the Politics of Development, Hampshire and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

- Hefner, R. ed. (1993). Conversion to Christianity: historical and anthropological perspectives on a great transformation, Berkeley: University of California Press.

- Kipp, R.S. (1995). Conversion by Affiliation: The History of the Karo Batak Protestant Church. American Ethnologist, 22 (4), pp. 868-882. Leo XIII. [1894] (1996). Orientalium dignitas. Encyclical on the Churches of the East. The Vatican and the Eastern Christian Churches: papal Encyclicals and Documents concerning the Eastern Churches. Fairfax: Eastern Christian Publications, pp. 179-189. Accessed on 22 November 2019. Retrieved from https://www.papalencyclicals.net/leo13/l13orient.htm

- Luzbetak, L. (1988). The Church and Cultures: New Perspectives in Missiological Anthropology, New York: Orbis. Paul VI. (1965). Nosta Aetate. Declaration on the relation of the Church to Non- Christian religions. Accessed on 22 November 2019. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_decl_19651028_nostra-aetate_en.html. _______. (1965). Ad Gentes. On the mission activity of the Church. Accessed on 22 November 2019. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_decree_19651207_ad-gentes_en.html. Pius XII. (1951).

- Evangelii Praecones. On the promotion of Catholic missions. Accessed on 22 November 2019. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/content/pius-xii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_02061951_evangelii-praecones.html.

- Prior, J. M. (2006). Language of Ritual and Rights in Eastern Indonesia. Sharing Diversity in Missiological Research and Education. Delhi: Indian Society for Promoting Christian knowledge and Ishvani Kendra.

- Ricklefs, M.C. (2001). A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1200, Hampshire: Palgrave.

- Steenbrink, K. (2003). Catholics in Indonesia 1808-1942. A documented history. Volume one: A Modest Recovery 1808-1903, Leiden: Brill.

- _______. (2007). Catholics in Indonesia 1808-1942. A documented history. Volume 2: The Spectacular Growth of a Self-Confident Minority, 1903-1942, Leiden: Brill.

- _______. (2013). ‘Dutch Colonial Containment of Islam in Manggarai, West- Flores, in Favour of Catholicism, 1907-1942’. Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia, 169(1), pp.104-148. Accessed on 11 July 2019. Retrieved from https://brill.com/view/journals/bki/169/1/article- p104_6.xml?crawler=true&language=zh

- Sumartana, Th. (1994). Mission at the Crossroads, Jakarta: Gunung Mulia.

- Tarling, N. (2008). The Establishment of the Colonial Régimes. From 1800 to the 1930s. The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

- Van Klinken, G. (2003). Minorities, modernity and the emerging nation: Christians in Indonesia, a biographical approach, Leiden: Brill.

- Vickers, A. (2013). A History of modern Indonesia, New York: Cambridge University Press.

- Webb, P. (1986). Adat and Christianity in Nusa Tenggara Timur: Reaction and Counteraction: Traditional custom and modern development in Eastern Indonesia. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 14, (4), pp. 339- 365.

- ______. (1994). The Children of Mori Kereng: Education and Development Strategies in Manggarai, Flores. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 22 (2), pp. 141-158.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/kawistara.54100

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1231 | views : 1404

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 Ricardo Vargas Posada, Bernard Adeney-Risakotta, Dicky Sofjan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Kawistara is published by the Graduate School, Universitas Gadjah Mada.