Helmi Muhammad(1*), Niki Puspita Sari(2)

(1) Universitas Islam Raden Rahmat
(2) Universitas Islam Raden Rahmat
(*) Corresponding Author


Introduction/Main Objectives: This research examined the synergy of transformational and servant leadership character, which was suitable for Islamic boarding schools' perspective as an Islamic typology.

Background Problems: The study of transformational and servant leadership has only focused on the business sector from a western perspective, which tends to be productivity-oriented. Meanwhile, the spirit of the two leadership characters is on morals and human, which have never been reviewed in empirical studies, especially in the perspective of Islam and in the context of Islamic boarding schools.

Novelty: The synergy of transformational and servant leadership formed a new model which was inclusive perspective leadership of Islamic boarding school.

Research Methods: This research used single case study approach with an exploratory descriptive design. Data collection was done by in-depth interviews with several informants who were selected purposively and through snowball sampling. The data were analyzed by using interactive models.

Finding/Results: The results showed that the conformity of transformational and servant leadership could be implemented in the leadership in Islamic boarding schools. The leader of the Islamic boarding school can be a transformational leader as well as a serving leader. Islamic boarding school as an organization has a mission of change in the context of transformational leadership with modes of serving in the context of servant leadership. The synergy of these characters could potentially be an inclusive leadership model.

Conclusion: The two models of leadership must be used simultaneously in leadership in Islamic boarding schools. The resulting combination will manifest the message of the mercy of Islamic leadership.


Transformational Leadership, Servant Leadership, Islamic Boarding School, Islamic Leadership, Inclusive Leadership

Full Text:



Aabed, A. I. (2006). A Study of Islamic Leadership Theory and Practice in K-12 Islamic Schools in Michigan. Theses and Dissertations, 408.

Abbasi, A. S., Rehman, K. U., & Bibi, A. (2010). Islamic Leadership Model an Accountability Perspective. World Applied Sciences Journal, 9(3), 230–238.

Adair, J. E. (2010). The leadership of Muhammad. Kogan Page.

Alam, N. A. R. (2018). Strengthening Leadership Culture (The Role of Kyai in Indonesian Pesantren). At-Ta’dib, 13(1), 5.

Ali, A. J. (2009). Islamic perspectives on leadership: A model. International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, 2(2), 160–180.

Antonio, M. S. (2008). Muhammad SAW: The super leader super manager. ProLM Centre.

Avolio, B. J., Waldman, D. A., & Yammarino, F. J. (1991). Leading in the 1990s: The Four I′s of Transformational Leadership. Journal of European Industrial Training, 15(4), 03090599110143366.

Bass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18(3), 19–31.

Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1993). Transformational Leadership and Organizational Culture. Public Administration Quarterly, 17(1), 112–121. JSTOR.

Bedendo, M., Cathcart, L., & El-Jahel, L. (2018). Reputational shocks and the information content of credit ratings. Journal of Financial Stability, 34, 44–60.

Beekun, R. I. (2012). Character centered leadership: Muhammad (p) as an ethical role model for CEOs. Journal of Management Development, 31(10), 1003–1020.

Beekun, R. I., & Badawi, J. A. (1999). Leadership: An Islamic perspective (1st ed). Amana.

Boddy, C. R. P., Ladyshewsky, R., & Galvin, P. (2010). Leaders without ethics in global business: Corporate psychopaths. Journal of Public Affairs, 10(3), 121–138.

Boezeman, E. J., & Ellemers, N. (2014). Volunteer leadership: The role of pride and respect in organizational identification and leadership satisfaction. Leadership, 10(2), 160–173.

Burns, J. M. (2010). Leadership (1. Harper Perennial political classics ed). Harper Perennial.

Cho, Y., & Shin, M. (2015). How Should Leaders Effectively Use Transformational and Transactional Leadership Across Cultures? Academy of Management Proceedings, 2015(1), 16196.

Divya, S., & Suganthi, L. (2018). Influence of transformational-servant leadership styles and justice perceptions on employee burnout: A moderated mediation model. International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, 15(1), 119.

Fikriyah, F., Karim, A., & Huda, M. K. (2021). Spiritual Leadership: The Case of Instilling Values in Students Through the Kiai’s Program in the Globalization Era. Journal of Leadership in Organizations, 3(1).

Greenleaf, R. K., & Spears, L. C. (2002). Servant leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness (25th anniversary ed). Paulist Press.

Gregory Stone, A., Russell, R. F., & Patterson, K. (2004). Transformational versus servant leadership: A difference in leader focus. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(4), 349–361.

Hafidh, Z., Zuhri, M. T., & Sandi, W. K. (2019). The Role of Kiai Leadership and Character Education: A Pattern of Santri Character Formation at Asy-Syifa Al-Qur’an Islamic Boarding School. Journal of Leadership in Organizations, 1(2).

Hersey, P., Blanchard, K. H., & Johnson, D. E. (2013). Management of organizational behavior: Leading human resources (10th ed). Pearson.

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (1997). Leadership practices inventory [LPI. Jossey-Bass.

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2011). Credibility: How leaders gain and lose it, why people demand it. Jossey-Bass.

Leroy, H., Palanski, M. E., & Simons, T. (2012). Authentic Leadership and Behavioral Integrity as Drivers of Follower Commitment and Performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 107(3), 255–264.

Locke, E. A. (Ed.). (2009). Handbook of principles of organizational behavior: Indispensable knowledge for evidence-based management (Second edition). John Wiley.

Lukens-Bull, R. (2010). Madrasa by Any Other Name: Pondok, Pesantren, and Islamic Schools in Indonesia and Larger Southeast Asian Region. Journal of Indonesian Islam, 4(1), 1.

Masqon, D. (2011). Dynamic of Pondok Pesantren as Indegenous Islamic Education Centre In Indonesia. TSAQAFAH, 7(1), 155.

Merriam-Webster. (2020). Definition of Vision. Merriam-Webster.Com Dictionary.

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (Third edition). SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mohamad, S., & Muhamad Sori, Z. (2011). Financial Fiascos: “The Short-Memory Syndrome?” SSRN Electronic Journal.

Moten, A. R. (2011). Leadership in the West and the Islamic World: A Comparative Analysis. /paper/Leadership-in-the-West-and-the-Islamic-World%3A-A-Moten/2534d511ce704dce68f0debffb5f18839fb3d7ab

Muthia, A., & Krishnan, V. R. (2015). Servant Leadership and Commitment: Role of Transformational Leadership. International Journal on Leadership, 3(1).

Palanski, M. E., & Yammarino, F. J. (2007). Integrity and Leadership: Clearing the Conceptual Confusion. European Management Journal, 25(3), 171–184.

Palanski, M. E., & Yammarino, F. J. (2009). Integrity and leadership: A multi-level conceptual framework. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(3), 405–420.

Parris, D. L., & Peachey, J. W. (2013). A Systematic Literature Review of Servant Leadership Theory in Organizational Contexts. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(3), 377–393.

Pohl, F. (2006). Islamic Education and Civil Society: Reflections on the Pesantren Tradition in Contemporary Indonesia. Comparative Education Review, 50(3), 389–409.

Putri, S. A., Mirzania, A., & Hartanto, M.Pd, Dr. D. (2020). The Importance of a Transformational Leadership Model in Managing Organizational Culture. Journal of Leadership in Organizations, 2(1).

Rafiki, A. (2020). Islamic Leadership: Comparisons and Qualities. In M. Franco (Ed.), Digital Leadership—A New Leadership Style for the 21st Century. IntechOpen.

Ridwan, A. (2020). The Dynamics of Pesantren Leadership from The Dutch Ethical Policy to the Reformation Periods. Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman, 15(02), 365–400.

Russell, R. F. (2001). The role of values in servant leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 22(2), 76–84.

Russell, R. F., & Stone, A. G. (2002). A review of servant leadership attributes: Developing a practical model. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(3), 145–157.

Scurlock, R., Dolsak, N., & Prakash, A. (2020). Recovering from Scandals: Twitter Coverage of Oxfam and Save the Children Scandals. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 31(1), 94–110.

Shore, L. M., Randel, A. E., Chung, B. G., Dean, M. A., Holcombe Ehrhart, K., & Singh, G. (2011). Inclusion and Diversity in Work Groups: A Review and Model for Future Research. Journal of Management, 37(4), 1262–1289.

Simons, T., Leroy, H., Collewaert, V., & Masschelein, S. (2015). How Leader Alignment of Words and Deeds Affects Followers: A Meta-analysis of Behavioral Integrity Research. Journal of Business Ethics, 132(4), 831–844.

Sjafrudin, A. (2018). Mengembangkan Kestrategisan Pondok Pesantren. https://

Turner, P. (2019). The Importance of Professional Credibility. In P. Turner, Leadership in Healthcare (pp. 173–202). Springer International Publishing.

Whetstone, J. T. (2002). Personalism and moral leadership: The servant leader with a transforming vision. Business Ethics: A European Review, 11(4), 385–392.

Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods (Fifth edition). SAGE.

Yukl, G. A., & Gardner, W. L. (2020). Leadership in organizations (Ninth edition). Pearson Education, Inc.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 5386 | views : 4005


Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Leadership in Organizations

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Leadership in Organizations


Editorial Team
Focus and Scope
Peer Review Process
Publication Ethics
Screening for Plagiarism      


Author Guidelines
Submission Guidelines               
Online Submissions
Copyright Notice
Privacy Statement   
Author Fees            


Reviewer Guidelines      


General Search
Author index
Title index                       



Journal of Leadership in Organizations (JLO), with registered number ISSN 2656-8829 (Print) and ISSN 2656-8810 (Online), is published by the Center for Leadership Studies, Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada. The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

© 2019 Journal of Leadership in Organizations