Grammatical Errors in the English Version of Indonesia’s Official Tourism Website

Maria Erlita Cipta Sari(1*)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


This research attempts to investigate the grammatical errors occuring in the official website of Indonesia’s tourism managed by the Tourism and Creative Economy Ministry of  the Republic of Indonesia. It classifies the grammatical errors based on their lingustic categories. The data used in this research were taken from the articles containing grammatical errors. The results show that from 11037 words, 150 errors (13.59 per 1000 words) were found. The errors were evenly distributed across the three menus under investigation, with those in the News menu (15.46 errors per 1000 words) being slightly greater than those in the Discover Indonesia menu (12.97) and the Events menu (12.65). Furthermore, of the 150 errors, 131 (87.33%) belong to the syntactic category and only 19 (12.67%) belong to the morphological category.  Out of the 19 morphological errors, the most frequent errors occured in the incorrect use of nominal modifiers (9 or 47.37%), followed by the incorrect use of third person singular verb (5 or 26.32%). As for the syntactic errors, the most common (102 or 77.87%) occured in the use of the noun phrase, followed by the incorrect use of the verb phrase (15 or 11.45%). Out of the 102 errors in the use of the noun phrase, most errors (65 or 63.72%) happened because of the omission of the articles, especially the definite article. The results seem to reflect the ability of the writers which do not clearly understand about the occasions when the definite article must be used.


grammatical error; tourism website; morphology; syntax; noun phrase; definite article; omission

Full Text:



Atibrata, Tyas Gita. 2011. Indonesian Students’ Errors in the Use of Determiners. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada. An unpublished graduating paper.

Brinton, Laurel J. 2000. The Structure of Modern English – A Linguistic Introduction. Amsterdam: John Benjamin Publishing Co.

Crowell, Jr. Thomas Lee. 1987. Index to Modern English. International ed. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.

Dulay, Heidi, Marina Burt and Stephen Krashen. 1982. Language Two. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, Rod. 1994. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Frank, Marcella. 1972. Modern English. A Practical Reference Guide. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Garnham, Alan. 1985. Psycholinguistic: Central Topics. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd.

Huddleston, Rodney and Geoffrey K. Pullum. 2005. A Student’s Introduction to English Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kaplan, Jeffrey P. 1995. English Grammar: Principles and Facts. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Leech, Geoffrey. 2006. A Glossary of English Grammar. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Leech, Geoffrey and Jan Svartvik. 1975. A Communicative Grammar of English. Essex, UK: Longman Group Limited.

Politzer, Robert L. and Arnulfo G. Ramirez. 1973. “An Error Analysis of The Spoken English of Mexican-American Pupils In A Bilingual School and A Monolingual School,” Language Learning. Vol. 23.01.39-62.

Quirk, Randolph and Sidney Greenbaum. 1973. A University Grammar of English. London: Longman Group Limited.

Richards, Jack C and Richard Schmidt. 2002. Longman Dictionary of Teaching and Applied Linguistics. Edinburgh: Pearson Education.

Simbolon, Christina Oriama. 2013. Grammatical Errors in the Website of Three Indonesian Public Universities. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada. An unpublished graduating paper.

“Wonderful Indonesia.” Web. 20 Oct 2013. <>.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1320 | views : 615


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2013 Maria Erlita Cipta Sari

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Lexicon Office

English Department
Faculty of Cultural Sciences,
Universitas Gadjah Mada
Soegondo Building, 3rd Floor, Room 306
Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55281
Telephone: +62 274 513096

ISSN: 2746-2668 (Online)

Web Analytics View Stats

Creative Commons License
LEXICON is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Lexicon is indexed in


About UsSubmissionIssuePoliciesReview