Analisis Luaran Klinik Pasien Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2 Berdasarkan Peresepan Antidiabetik dan Komplikasi

https://doi.org/10.22146/farmaseutik.v16i2.50566

Pande Made Desy Ratnasari(1*), Tri Murti Andayani(2), Dwi Endarti(3)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Gadjah Mada,Yogyakarta
(3) Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Gadjah Mada,Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Diabetes Melitus (DM) tipe 2 merupakan penyakit metabolik kronis yang membutuhkan terapi antidiabetik seumur hidup guna mengontrol glukosa darah serta mencegah terjadinya komplikasi. Peresepan antidiabetik yang diberikan kepada pasien serta terjadinya komplikasi dapat mempengaruhi luaran klinik yaitu glukosa darah sewaktu (GDS). Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui perbedaan  luaran klinik  berdasarkan peresepan antidiabetik dan jenis komplikasi.  Rancangan penelitian adalah deskriptif analitik dengan desain cross sectional. Subyek penelitian adalah pasien DM tipe 2 dengan usia ≥18 tahun yang memperoleh antidiabetik secara rutin minimal 3 bulan sebelum penelitian Di Instalasi Rawat Jalan RSUD Panembahan Senopati Bantul Yogyakarta periode September 2017. Pengambilan data dilakukan secara retrospektif berdasarkan rekam medik dengan teknik purposive sampling. Analisis data demografi dan perbedaan luaran klinik berdasarkan peresepan antidiabetik dilakukan secara deskriptif. Uji Chi-square digunakan untuk melihat perbedaan luaran klinik berdasarkan jenis komplikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan sebesar 48,5% pasien memperoleh kombinasi antidiabetik oral dan insulin, sedangkan terjadinya komplikasi didominasi makrovaskuler (19,5%). Terdapat perbedaan luaran klinik berdasarkan peresepan antidiabetik dan komplikasi (p=0,009). Pasien dengan kombinasi oral serta pasien tanpa komplikasi menunjukkan luaran klinik yang terkontrol paling tinggi.


Keywords


DM tipe 2; antidiabetik; komplikasi; luaran klinik

Full Text:

PDF


References

Abdi, H., Azizi, F., Amouzegar, A., 2018, Insulin Monotherapy Versus Insulin Combined with Other Glucose Lowering Agents in Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review. International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism,16: 1–10. American Diabetes Association, 2013. Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2012. Diabetes Care, 36: 1033–1046. Bakris, G., Blonde, L., Boulton, A.J., de Groot, M., Greene, E.L., Henry, R. et al., 2014. Standards of medical care in diabetes 2017. The Journal of Clinical and Apllied Research and Education, 1–150. Bhalerao, S.D., Somannavar, M., Vernekar, S.S., Ravishankar, R., Goudar, S.S., 2014. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural population of north karnataka: a community-based cross-sectional study. International Journal of Pharma Medicine and Biological Sciences, 3: 1–14. Chakraborty, N., Mandal, A.K., n.d. A Study on Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Diabetes Clinic of a Tertiary Care Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal. Chaurasia, A., Kumar, M., 2017, Clinical study of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetics less than 50 years of age with reference to the glycated hemoglobin level in a tertiary care centre in Rewa. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences, 2625-2629. Desai, P., Desai, C., Panchal, A., Desai, S., 2014, A Drug prescribing pattern study in diabetes mellitus: an outpatient study. J Pharm Sci. 2271–3681. Dipiro, J., Talbert, R., Yee, G., Matzke, G., Wells, B., Posey, L., 2015, PharmacotherapyA Pathophysiologic approach Edisi ke-9. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Faridah, I.N., Dewintasari, V., 2017. Quality of Life Analysis in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Patients using Monotherapy and Combination Treatment Oo Medicine. Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy, 28; 119. Zoungas, S., Woodward, M., Li, Q., Cooper, M.E., Hamet, P., Harrap, S., et al., 2014. Impact of age, age at diagnosis and duration of diabetes on the risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications and death in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia, 57: 2465–2474. Gallagher, E.J., LeRoith, D., Karnieli, E., 2011. The Metabolic Syndrome from Insulin Resistance to Obesity and Diabetes. Medical Clinics of North America, 95: 855–873. Grundy, S.M., 2012. PreDiabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 59: 635–643. Inzucchi, S.E., Bergenstal, R.M., Buse, J.B., Diamant, M., Ferrannini, E., Nauck, M., et al., 2015. Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes, 2015: A Patient-Centered Approach: Update to a Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 38: 140–149. Jung, H.S., 2015. Clinical Implications of Glucose Variability: Chronic Complications of Diabetes. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 30: 167. Kassahun, T., Gesesew, H., Mwanri, L., Eshetie, T., 2016. Diabetes related knowledge, self-care behaviours and adherence to medications among diabetic patients in Southwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Endocrine Disorders, 16. Kaur, J., 2014. A Comprehensive Review on Metabolic Syndrome. Cardiology Research and Practice, 1–21. Kayar, Y., Ilhan, A., Kayar, N.B., Unver, N., Coban, G., Ekinci, I., et al., 2017. Relationship between the poor glycemic control and risk factors, life style and complications. Biomedical Research, 28. Kim, H., Kim, Doo-man, Cha, B., Park, T.S., Kim, K., et al., 2014. Efficacy of glimepiride/metformin fixed-dose combination vs metformin uptitration in type 2 diabetic patients inadequately controlled on low-dose metformin monotherapy: A randomized, open label, parallel group, multicenter study in Korea. Journal of Diabetes Investigation 5: 701–708. Lastra, G., Syed, S., Kurukulasuriya, L.R., Manrique, C., Sowers, J.R., 2014. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 43: 103–122. Mohan, V., Unnikrishnan, R., 2017. World Clinics: Diabetology Complications of Diabetes, 2: 1. Patel, B., Oza, B., Patel, K., Malhotra, S., Patel, V., 2013. Pattern of antidiabetic drugs use in type-2 diabetic patients in a medicine outpatient clinic of a tertiary care teaching hospital. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 2: 485. Punthakee, Z., Goldenberg, R., Katz, P., 2018. Definition, Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes, Prediabetes and Metabolic Syndrome. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 42: S10–S15. Rani, J., Reddy, S., 2015. Prescribing pattern of antidiabetic drugs in urban population of Hyderabad. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 5: 5. Rasheed, M., Islam, N., Mahjabeen, W., 2015. Factors Associated with Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College (JIMDC), 4: 68–71. Rhee, S.Y., Chon, S., Kwon, M.K., Park, I.B., Ahn, K.J., Kim, I.J., et al., 2011. Prevalence of Chronic Complications in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based on the Korean National Diabetes Program. Diabetes & Metabolism Journal, 35: 504. Sivasankari, V., Manivannan, E., Priyadarsini, S.P., 2013. Drug utilization pattern of anti-diabetic drugs in a rural area of Tamilnadu, South India - A prospective, observational study. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 4: 514–519. Song, Y., Liu, X., Zhu, X., Zhao, B., Hu, B., Sheng, X., et al., 2016. Increasing trend of diabetes combined with hypertension or hypercholesterolemia: NHANES data analysis 1999–2012. Scientific Reports, 6. Thomas, S.S., Zhang, L., Mitch, W.E., 2015. Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in chronic kidney disease. Kidney International, 88: 1233–1239. Trisnawati, S.K., Setyorogo, S., 2013. Faktor risiko Kejadian diabetes melitus tipe II di puskesmas kecamatan cengkareng Jakarta Barat Tahun 2012. Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan, 5: 6–11. Vos, R.C., Rutten, G.E., 2017. Oral Hypoglycemic Agents Added to Insulin Monotherapy for Type 2 Diabetes. Jama, 318: 1489–1490. Williams, M.E., Garg, R., 2014. Glycemic Management in ESRD and Earlier Stages of CKD. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 63: S22–S38. Williams, S., 2017. Occupational Stress and Increased Risk for Type 2-Diabetes: A Narrative Review. Journal of Complementary Medicine & Alternative Healthcare, 2. Yin, Y., Han, W., Wang, Y., Zhang, Y., Wu, S., Zhang, H., Jiang, L., Wang, R., Zhang, P., Yu, Y., Li, B., 2015. Identification of Risk Factors Affecting Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes in Adult Patients from Northeast China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12: 12662–12678.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/farmaseutik.v16i2.50566

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 44 | views : 57

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Majalah Farmaseutik Indexed by:

   
Lisensi Creative Commons
    web
analytics
Ciptaan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-NonKomersial-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional.