Review: Potensi Metabolit Sekunder dari Phaleria macrocarpa dan Fungi Endofitnya sebagai Antikanker

https://doi.org/10.22146/farmaseutik.v20i1.86037

Ikra Agustina(1), Caterina Siskadewi Lay(2), Puji Astuti(3*)

(1) Magister Ilmu Farmasi, Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Magister Ilmu Farmasi, Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Departemen Biologi Farmasi, Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Phaleria macrocarpa merupakan tanaman obat Indonesia yang telah digunakan secara empiris untuk pengobatan berbagai penyakit, termasuk kanker. Beberapa metabolit aktif dari Phaleria macrocarpa yang diketahui memiliki aktivitas antikanker diantaranya phalerin, asam galat, fevicordin, dan kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glukosida. Kanker adalah salah satu penyakit yang menjadi masalah global dengan prevalensi dan angka kematian yang tinggi. Terapi pada penderita kanker masih mengalami beberapa keterbatasan seperti aspek biaya yang tinggi, banyaknya efek samping obat sintesis pada kemoterapi, dan adanya resistensi obat kemoterapi. Sumber bahan baku pengobatan kanker di Indonesia juga kebanyakan masih bergantung pada impor. Pencarian senyawa aktif dari bahan alam sangat diperlukan untuk pengembangan bahan baku obat antikanker. Namun, seringkali metabolit aktif yang berasal dari tumbuhan memiliki kelimpahan yang rendah. Penggunaan mikroba endofit dapat menjadi salah satu stategi untuk produksi senyawa metabolit aktif tanpa memerlukan bahan baku dalam jumlah besar. Mikroba endofit dapat bersimbiosis dalam inangnya dan menghasilkan metabolit sekunder yang kemungkinan mirip dengan tanaman inangnya. Artikel ini bertujuan mengkaji metabolit sekunder dari Phaleria macrocarpa dan potensi penggunaan mikroba endofitnya sebagai sumber senyawa antikanker yang berasal dari alam. Metode yang digunakan berupa studi pustaka melalui penelusuran berbagai studi, artikel ilmiah dan penelitian dari database elektronik (Elsevier, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct dan Springer Link). Artikel ini diharapkan menjadi sumber informasi untuk acuan para peneliti di masa mendatang dalam pengembangan riset obat antikanker yang berasal dari alam.


Keywords


Antikanker; Fungi Endofit; Metabolit Sekunder; Phaleria macrocarpa

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/farmaseutik.v20i1.86037

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