Effect of hexane extract of Clinacanthus nutans leaves on HSC-3 cells migration in vitro


Moehamad Orliando Roeslan(1*), Noni Anis Qurrotuain(2), Dicha Yuliadewi Rahmawati(3), Paopanga Orliando Monthanpisut(4)

(1) Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Trisakti, Jakarta
(2) Undergraduate Program of Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Trisakti, Jakarta
(3) Department of Oral Biology, Maranatha Christian University, Bandung, West Java
(4) Oral Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry, Thammasat University, Pathumthani
(*) Corresponding Author


Cancer is a major health issue and considered the most life-threatening disease worldwide. The oral cavity is one of the top ten locations in the body most frequently affected by cancer. The most common type of oral cancer (90%) is squamous cell carcinoma. Leaves of C. nutans have many uses and benefits, one of which is its potential as an anticancer agent. This study aims to determine the effect of C. nutans leaves hexane extract on HSC-3 cell strain migration. The leaves of C. nutans were extracted using a hexane solvent with the maceration method. Various concentrations (500, 250, 100, 50 and 25 mg/mL) were assessed to identify the effect of C. nutans leaves hexane extract on HSC-3 cells migration at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 time point. The concentration of 500 μg/mL was found to possess the ability to inhibit migration and induce apoptosis by the 6th hour. The concentration of 250 μg/mL induced apoptosis by the 24th hour. Concentrations of 100 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL were capable of inhibiting cell migration, and the concentration of 25 μg/mL could only delay cell migration up to the 12th hour. In conclusion, hexane extract of C. nutans leaves can inhibit HSC-3 cells migration.


Clinacanthus nutans leaves; hexane extract; HSC-3; scratch assay


1. El-saied F, El-aarag B, Salem T, Said G, Khalifa SAM, El-Seedi HR. Synthesis, characterization, and in vivo anti-cancer activity of new metal complexes derived from Isatin-N(4)antipyrinethiosemicarbazone ligand against ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Mole. 2019; 24: 1–25. doi: 10.3390/molecules24183313

2. Gupta N, Gupta R, Acharya AK, Patthi B, Goud V, Reddy S, Garg A, Singla A. Changing
Trends in oral cancer - a global scenario. Nepal J Epidemiol. 2016; 6(4): 613-619.
doi: 10.3126/nje.v6i4.17255

3. Montero PH, Patel SG. Cancer of the oral cavity. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2015; 24(3):
491-508. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2015.03.006

4. Ribeiro IP, Rodrigues JM, Mascarenhas A, Kosyakova N, Caramelo F, Liehr T, et
al. Cytogenetic, genomic, and epigenetic characterization of the HSC-3 tongue cell line
with lymph node metastasis. J Oral Sci. 2018; 60(1): 70-81. doi: 10.2334/josnusd.16-0811

5. Sirait AM. Risk factors for tumors/cancer of the oral cavity and throat in Indonesia. R&D
Media. 2013; 23(3): 122–129.

6. Kanaco M, Pontoh V, Sunaryo H. Pattern of oral cavity tumors in RSUP Prof.Dr. R.D Kandou
Manado periode 2014-2016. J e-Clinic. 2016; 4(2). doi: 10.35790/ecl.v4i2.14474

7. Arantes LM, de Carvalho AC, Melendez ME. Validation of methylation markers for diagnosis of oral cavity cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(5): 632-641. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2015.01.060

8. Global Cancer Facts and Figures 4th edition. Atlanta. American Cancer Society; 2018. 1-2.

9. Safitri UH, Nawangsih EF, Noviyanti ND, Nur aini F, Apliani D, Haniastuti T. In vivo study
of ethanolic extract of ciplukan (physalis angulata) in improving apoptosis of tongue cancer cells. Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia. 2016; 2(3): 109–115. doi: 10.22146/majkedgiind.10744

10. Lintong PM. Precancerous lesions and cancer of the oral cavity. J Biomedicine (JBM). 2013;
5(3): 43–50.

11. Firman RN, Pramanik F, Nurrachman AS. Images of posterior mandibular squamous
cell carcinoma on panoramic radiograph. J Dentomaxillofacial Radiol Indones. 2020; 4:

12. Sianipar, Fronika N, Purnamaningsih R, Rosiana R. Development of rat taro plants
(Typhonium flagelliforme lodd.) from Indonesia as anticancer drugs. J Research and Service.
2016; 65–74.

13. Ohnishi S, Takeda H. Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced
side effects. Front Pharmacol. 2015; 6: 6–14. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2015.00014

14. Komariah K, Ageng A, Kusuma I. Effect of combination of valproic acid and nano chitosan
horn beetle (Xylotrupesgideon) on viability and cytotoxicity of tongue cancer cells (HSC-3).
Book 1 Science and Technology. 2019; 1–7.

15. Ghaedi F, Dehghan M, Salari M, Sheikhrabori A. Complementary and Alternative medicines:
usage and its determinant factors among outpatients in Southeast of Iran. J Evid Based
Complementary Altern Med. 2017; 22(2): 210- 215. doi: 10.1177/2156587215621462

16. Oyebode O, Kandala NB, Chilton PJ, Lilford RJ. Use of traditional medicine in middleincome
countries: a WHO-SAGE study. Health Policy Plan. 2016; 31(8): 984-991. doi: 10.1093/heapol/czw022

17. Kamarudin MNA, Sarker MMR, Kadir HA, Ming LC. Ethnopharmacological uses,
phytochemistry, biological activities, and therapeutic applications of Clinacanthus
nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau: A comprehensive review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017; 206: 245-
266. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.05.007

18. Chelyn JL, Omar MH, Syaidatul N, Mohd A, Ranggasamy R, Wasiman MI, Ismail
Z. Analysis of flavone C-glycosides in the leaves of Clinacanthus nutans (burm.f.)
Lindau by HPTLC and HPLC-UV / DAD. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014. 2014; 1–6.
doi: 10.1155/2014/724267

19. Ghasemzadeh A, Nasiri A, Jaafar HZ, Baghdadi A, Ahmad I. Changes in phytochemical
synthesis, chalcone synthase activity and pharmaceutical qualities of sabah snake grass (Clinacanthus nutans L.) in relation to plant age. Molecules. 2014; 19(11): 17638–
17648. doi: 10.3390/molecules191117632

20. Yeo BS, Yap YJ, Koh RY, Ng KY, Chye SM. Medicinal properties of Clinacanthus nutans:
a review. Trop J Pharm Res. 2018; 17(2): 375–382. doi: 10.4314/tjpr.v17i2.25

21. Ng PY, Chye SM, Ng CH, Koh RY, Tiong YL, Pui LP, et al. Clinacanthus nutans hexane
extracts induce apoptosis through a caspasedependent pathway in human cancer cell lines.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2017; 18(4): 917–926. doi: 10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.4.917

22. Yong YK, Tan JJ, Teh SS, Mah SH, Ee GCL, Chiong HS, Ahmad Z. Clinacanthus nutans
extracts are antioxidant with antiproliferative effect on cultured human cancer cell lines.
Evid Based Complement Altern Med. 2013; 2013: 1–8. doi: 10.1155/2013/462751

23. Roeslan MO, Ayudhya TDN, Yingyongnarongkul B ek, Koontongkaew S. Anti-biofilm, nitric oxide inhibition and wound healing potential of purpurin-18 phytyl ester isolated from Clinacanthus nutans leaves. Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 113: 1–13.
doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108724

24. Bobadilla AVP, Arévalo J, Sarró E, et al. In vitro cell migration quantification method for
scratch assays. 2019; 16: 20180709. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2018.0709

25. Panche AN, Diwan AD, Chandra SR. Flavonoids: an overview. J Nutr Sci. 2016 Dec
29; 5: 47. doi: 10.1017/jns.2016.41

26. Suryatinah Y, S MB, Wijaya NR, Tjandrarini H. Exploration and Inventarization of Indigenous
Medicinal Plants as an Anti-Inflammatory in Three Dayak Tribes, South Kalimantan. Bul
Plasma Nutfah. 2020; 26(1): 63–76.

27. Kopustinskiene DM, Jakstas V, Savickas A, Bernatoniene J. Flavonoids as Anticancer
Agents. Nutrients. 2020; 12(2): 457. doi: 10.3390/nu12020457

28. Kamran S, Sinniah A, Abdulghani M, Alshawsh M. Therapeutic potential of certain
terpenoids as anticancer agents: a scoping review. Cancers (Basel). 2022; 14(5): 1100.
doi: 10.3390/cancers14051100

29. Dey P, Kundu A, Chakraborty H, Kar B, Choi W, et al. Therapeutic value of steroidal
alkaloids in cancer: current trends and future perspectives. Int J Cancer. 2019; 145(7):
1731–1744. doi: 10.1002/ijc.31965

30. Tabassum S, Thakur V, Rosli N, et al. Therapeutic Implications of thymoquinone and
its molecular and functional mechanisms against oral and lung cancer. Gene Reports. 2022; 27:
101600. doi: 10.1016/j.genrep.2022.101600

31. Roeslan MO, Fatima SL. Effect of ethanol, hexane and water extracts of Clinacanthus
nutans leaves on Hone-1 proliferation. J Kedokteran Gigi Terpadu. 2020; 2(1): 1–4.
doi: 10.25105/jkgt.v2i1.7503

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/majkedgiind.89452

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 394 | views : 165


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Currently, Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia indexed by:







 View My Stats

time web analytics