Evaluation of a Hand Antiseptic with WHO-Recommended Formulation and Its Efficacy in Killing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

  • Ahmad Subhan Clinical pharmacist Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Wasmen Manalu Departemen Anatomi Fisiologi dan Farmakologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, Institut Pertanian Bogor.
  • Min Rahminiwati Departemen Anatomi Fisiologi dan Farmakologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, Institut Pertanian Bogor.
  • Huda Salahudin Darusman Departemen Anatomi Fisiologi dan Farmakologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Keywords: hand rub, hand sanitizer, ahmad Subhan, percentage kill, WHO


The present pandemic that is caused by COVID-19 and previously by the clone of the methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has threatened human life. This condition requires materials that can break the chain of transmission from human to human and from the environment to human. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of alcohol-based hand antiseptic using WHO-recommended formulation based on the stability of the formulation, the risk of irritation, and the ability to kill bacteria. Assessments on the presence of rancidity, clarity, discoloration, final alcohol content, and skin irritation risk were done to know the quality of the product. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was used to assess the percentage of bacterial killing power. The selected bacteria were bacteria that are commonly found in the hospital environment. The results showed that from four variants tested, MK.IV had good stability compared to other formulations. In terms of irritation risk, twenty-three selected subjects could well tolerate the formula. The results of the killing efficacy against MRSA showed that the antiseptic could kill 99.90% of the bacteria at the 1st, 2nd, and 5th minute. A selected manufacturer's product also showed the same killing efficacy at the 1st, 2nd, and 5th minute. The effective value of the antiseptic for each contact time was ≥ 90%.


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How to Cite
Subhan, A., Manalu, W., Rahminiwati, M., & Darusman, H. S. (2021). Evaluation of a Hand Antiseptic with WHO-Recommended Formulation and Its Efficacy in Killing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA). Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy, 32(1), 114-125. https://doi.org/10.22146/ijp.1252
Research Article