Toxicity of Legiayu incense as Insecticide and Larvicide Against Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Mortality

  • I Made Dwi Mertha Adnyana Department of Biology, Faculty of Information Technology and Science, Hindu University of Indonesia, Jl. Sangalangit Tembau Penatih 80236, Denpasar, Indonesia
  • Ni Luh Gede Sudaryati Department of Biology, Faculty of Information Technology and Science, Hindu University of Indonesia, Jl. Sangalangit Tembau Penatih 80236, Denpasar, Indonesia
  • Israil Sitepu Department of Biology, Faculty of Information Technology and Science, Hindu University of Indonesia, Jl. Sangalangit Tembau Penatih 80236, Denpasar, Indonesia
Keywords: Aedes aegypti, Insecticide, Larvicide, Legiayu incense, Toxicity


Community-based DHF vector control has been implemented in Indonesia but has not yet obtained optimal results. Thus, in the community choosing synthetic insecticides to control disease vectors. However, irregular and excessive use of insecticides has a toxic effect and resistance to mosquitoes. Burning mosquito coils and incense containing synthetic dyes and fragrances have the potential to reduce environmental quality. Therefore, this research was conducted to analyze the toxicity of Legiayu incense as an insecticide and larvicide against Aedes aegypti mosquito mortality. The research design is experimental with a completely randomized design. Testing was conducted by providing exposure to smoke and ash of Legiayu incense five times on twenty-five Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Statistical analysis used one-way ANOVA, LSD, and probit test. The test result as insecticide value (p=0.000) effective exposure for 20 minutes with a durability of 6 hours. The test result as larvicide value (p=0.000) effective exposure for 24 hours. Thus, exposure toismoke and ash of iLegiayuiincense has a very noticeable effect on the mortality of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Exposureito Legiayu incense smoke obtained an LT50 value of 0,9012 ≤ 5 (super toxic category) with a time of 15 minutes 39 seconds, coefficient determination of 99.24%, and correlation coefficient of 99.62% while exposure to the ash of Legiayu incense obtained LT50 value of 0,05896 ≤ 5 (super toxic category) with time 19 hours 15 minutes 34 seconds, coefficient determination and correlation coefficient of 100%. Histopathological test results showed that Legiayu incense smoke did not cause tissue degeneration, necrosis, hyperplasia, and metaplasia in the lung tissue of mice (mus musculus) within a period of 12 weeks. Thus, Legiayu incense is effective as insecticides and larvicides against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Legiayu incense has potential substitute for mosquito repellent coils, temephos, and synthetic incense circulating in the market.


Aji R. 2017. The effect of lemongrass on the existence of Aedes aegypti larvae in water collections. J. Vok. Kes. 3(1): 1-4.

Amador-Muñoz O., Martínez-Domínguez YM., Gómez-Arroyo S., et al. 2020. Current situation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in PM2.5 in a receptor site in Mexico City and estimation of carcinogenic PAH by combining non-real-time and real-time measurement techniques. Sci.Tot. Environ. 703,134526.

Astriani Y., Widawati M. 2017. Potential plants in Indonesia as natural larvicides for Aedes aegypti. Spirakel. 8(2): 37–46.

Astuti D., Santoso H. 2017. The effect of the variation of serai leaves solution (Andropogon nardus L.) on mortality of Aedes sp. mosquito larva as a source of biological learning. Bioeducation, 5(2): 112–122.

Bali Health Office. 2020. Profil Kesehatan Provinsi Bali Tahun 2019. Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Bali. Denpasar.

Bao F., Tang R., Cheng L., Zhang C., Qiu C., Yuan T., Zhu L., Li, Chen L. 2018. Terpenoids from Vitex trifolia L. and their anti-inflammatory activities. J. Nat. Med. 72(2): 570–575.

Bootdee S., Chantara S., Prapamontol T. 2016. Determination of PM2.5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incense burning emission at shrine for health risk assessment. Atmos. Poll. Res. 7(4): 680–689.

BPOM RI. 2014. Peraturan Kepala Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan Republik Indonesia nomor 7 tahun 2014 tentang pedoman uji toksisitas non klinik secara in vivo. BPOM, Jakarta. pp.110.

Chan EWC., Baba S., Chan HT., Kainuma M.,Tangah J. 2016. Medicinal plants of sandy shores: a short review on Vitex trifolia L. and Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br. Environ. Health. Pers. 124(9) :1487–1492.

Ekawati ER. 2017. Utilization of liny orange fruit (Citrus aurantifolia) skin as larvacides Aedes aegypti instar III. Biota, 3(1): 1–11.

EPA. 2014. Climate change indicators in the United States. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. United States.

Fitriansyah-Irfan M., Indradi, Bayu R. 2018. Phytochemical profile and pharmacological activity of baluntas (Pluchea indica L.). Farmaka. 16(2): 337–346.

Friborg JT., Yuan JM., Wang R., Koh., Lee HP., Yue. 2014. Incense use and respiratory tract carcinomas: a prospective cohort study. Cancer.113(7): 1676–1684.

Garcia G de A., David MR., Martins A de J., Maciel-de-Freitas R., Linss JGB., Araújo, SC., Lima JBP., Valle D. 2018. The impact of insecticide applications on the dynamics of resistance: the case of four Aedes aegypti populations from different Brazilian regions. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 12(2): e0006227.

Geng Y., Hu G., Ranjitkar S., Shi Y., Zhang Y., Wang Y. 2017. The implications of ritual practices and ritual plant uses on nature conservation: a case study among the Naxi in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. J. Ethnobio.Ethnomed. 13(1): 58.

Guo SE., Chi, MC., Lin, CM.,Yang, TM. 2020. Contributions of burning incense on indoor air pollution levels and on the health status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PeerJ. 8, 1–17.

Gupta RC., Milatovic D. 2014. Insecticides: organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Biomark.Toxico. University West Lafayette. pp. 471–486.

Hung DZ., Yang KW., Wu CC.,Hung YH. 2020. Lead poisoning due to incense burning: an outbreak in a family. Clin. Toxico (Phila). 2,1–6.

Kemenkes RI. 2017. Demam Berdarah Dengue. Chapter 1. Buletin Jendela Epidemiologi Pusat Data dan Surveilans Epidemiologi, Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, Jakarta.

Lu F., Li S., Shen B., Zhang J., Liu L., Shen X., Zhao R. 2020. The emission characteristic of VOCs and the toxicity of BTEX from different mosquito-repellent incenses. J. Hazard Mat. 384, 121428.

Phasomkusolsil S., Soonwera M. 2011. Efficacy of herbal essential oils as insecticide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles Dirus (Peyton and Harrison). South. Asian J.Trop. Med. Pub. Health, 42(5): 1083–1092.

Rochmat A., Adiati MF.,Bahiyah Z. 2017. Development of Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae biolarvicide with active ingredients of beluntas extract (Pluchea indica Less.). Reaktor. 16(3): 103.

Saklani S., Mishra AP., Chandra H., Atanassova MS., Stankovic M., Sati B., et al. 2017. Comparative evaluation of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities between ethanol extracts of Vitex negundo and Vitex trifolia L. leaves by different methods. Plants, 6(4): 45.

Saputra EJ., Pakkan R. 2018. Efektivitas ekstrak daun jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia) dan batang serai wangi (Cymbopogon nardus L) terhadap kematian jentik Aedes aegypti di Kelurahan Lapulu Kecamatan Abeli. Miracle J. Public Health, 1(2): 1–8.

Sholeha D., Muhamat M., Anwar K. 2018. Activity test of beluntas (Pluchea indica (L.) Less.) Petroleum ether fraction as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. J. Pharmasci. 5(2): 86–97.

Siew YY., Yew HC., Neo SY., Seow S V., Lew SM., Lim SW., et al. 2019. Evaluation of anti-proliferative activity of medicinal plants used in Asian Traditional Medicine to treat cancer. J. Ethnopharma. 235(10): 75–87.

Suarsana IN., Kumbara AANA., Satriawan IK. 2015. Tanaman obat : sembuhkan penyakit untuk sehat. 1st ed. Swasta Nulus. LPPM UNUD. Denpasar.

Susilowati RP., Darmanto W., Aminah. 2018. The effectiveness of herbal mosquito coils “Morizena” against Aedes aegypti death. Indonesian. J.Trop. Infect. Dis. 7(2): 50.

Syani., Sutarto S. 2018. Insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti. J. Agromed. 5(2): 582-586.

Tyastirin E., Hidayati I. 2017. Statistik parametrik untuk penelitian kesehatan. 1st ed. Program Studi Arsitektur, UIN Sunan Ampel. Surabaya.

Utami, IW., Cahyati WH. 2017. Potential of cambodian leaf extract as insecticide against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. J. Pub. Health. Res. Dev. 1(1): 22–28.

Vasantha-Srinivasan P., Thanigaivel A., Edwin ES., Ponsankar A., Senthil-Nathan S., Selin-Rani S., et al. 2018. Toxicological effects of chemical constituents from Piper against the environmental burden Aedes aegypti Liston and their impact on non-target toxicity evaluation against biomonitoring aquatic insects. Environ. Sci. Poll. Res. 25(11): 10434–10446.

WHO. 2011. Comprehensive guidelines for prevention and control of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever. 60th ed. World Health Organization. SEARO.

WHO. 2018. Guideline World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme. WHOPES, Geneva. pp. 1- 68.

Wong A., Lou W., Ho K fai, Yiu BK fung, Lin S., Chu WC wing, et al. 2020. Indoor incense burning impacts cognitive functions and brain functional connectivity in community older adults. Sci. Rep. 10(1): 1–11.

Yuliana FD., Mu A. 2019. The effect of giving combination of Cymbopogon nardus L. herbs and Persea mericana M. leaves on high density lipoprotein levels in hypercholesterol Rattus norveicus. J. Chem. Inform. Mod. 53(9): 1689–1699.

Zhu S., Zheng X., Stevanovic S., Wang L., Wang H., Gao J., et al. 2018. Investigating particles, VOCs, ROS produced from mosquito-repellent incense emissions and implications in SOA formation and human health. Build. Environ.143, 645–651.

Zulfikar, Aditama W., Sitepu FY. 2019. The effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon nardus) extract as insecticide against Aedes aegypti. Int. J. Mosq. Res. 6(1): 101–103.
How to Cite
I Made Dwi Mertha Adnyana, Ni Luh Gede Sudaryati, & Israil Sitepu. (2021). Toxicity of Legiayu incense as Insecticide and Larvicide Against Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Mortality. Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy, 32(4), 524-521.
Research Article