Immunomodulatory Effect of Petroleum Ether Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Bengkoang (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) In Vitro

  • Tanti Azizah Sujono Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Jl. Ahmad Yani, Pabelan, Kartasura, Surakarta 57162, Indonesia
  • Arief Nurrochmad Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
  • Endang Lukitaningsih Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
  • Agung Endro Nugroho Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Keywords: Pachyrhizus erosus L, immunomodulatory, phagocytic activity, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokines, in vitro


Bengkoang (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) contains phytosterol and the isoflavone daidzein, which are thought to have immunomodulatory activity. There have been no studies reporting on the immunomodulatory effects of bengkoang extract containing polar and semi-polar compounds, such as phytosterols and isoflavone-like compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of bengkoang extracts, including petroleum ether extract (PEE), methanol extract (ME), and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of bengkoang, in vitro. The immunomodulatory effects of PEE, ME, and EAF of bengkoang were determined according to the phagocytic activity of macrophages based on phagocytosis of latex beads, lymphocyte proliferation, and detection of cytokine production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Results: The phagocytic index and phagocytic capacity of ME, PEE, and EAF of bengkoang on macrophage cells were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas lymphocyte proliferation was unchanged compared with the control (p > 0.05), and ME of bengkoang enhanced the levels of the cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. In contrast, PEE and EAF of bengkoang decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels compared with the control group. All of the bengkoang extracts decrease the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In conclusion, this study showed that PEE, ME, and EAF of bengkoang could increase the non-specific immune response (phagocytic activity) but had a lesser effect on the specific immune response (lymphocyte proliferation). The ME of bengkoang acts as an immunostimulant by increasing the levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 and decreasing those of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.


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How to Cite
Sujono, T. A., Nurrochmad, A., Lukitaningsih, E., & Nugroho, A. E. (2021). Immunomodulatory Effect of Petroleum Ether Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Bengkoang (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) In Vitro. Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy, 32(4), 454-463.
Research Article

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