Analysis of Enoxaparin Effectiveness Based on COVID-19 Severity: A Study in a Secondary Hospital in Bandung, Indonesia

  • Budi Suprapti Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga Jl. Dharmawangsa Dalam Surabaya 60286
  • Liana Debora Magister of Clinical Pharmacy Program, Campus B Universitas Airlangga Surabaya, Jalan Dharmawangsa Dalam, Surabaya 60286, Indonesia; Pharmacy Department, Santo Borromeus Hospital, Bandung, Jawa Barat 40132, Indonesia
  • Dewi Kusumawati Intensive Care Unit Department, Santo Borromeus Hospital, Bandung, Jawa Barat 40132, Indonesia
  • Arina Dery PS Faculty of Pharmacy Department, Campus B Universitas Airlangga Surabaya, Jalan Dharmawangsa Dalam, Surabaya 60286, Indonesia
  • Gabriella Nathasya T Magister of Clinical Pharmacy Program, Campus B Universitas Airlangga Surabaya, Jalan Dharmawangsa Dalam, Surabaya 60286, Indonesia
  • Mustika Novi Arini Pharmacy Department, Santo Borromeus Hospital, Bandung, Jawa Barat 40132, Indonesia
  • Lusiana Dwi Aryanti Pharmacy Department, Santo Borromeus Hospital, Bandung, Jawa Barat 40132, Indonesia
Keywords: Enoxaparin, Covid-19, D-Dimer, Platelet, CRP


Li Coagulopathy is a common predictor of mortality in COVID-19. Meanwhile, enoxaparin is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory, endothelial protection, and viral antagonist properties. Therefore, thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin in COVID-19 is common in clinical settings. This study aims to assess enoxaparin's efficacy across different severity levels by examining its effect on primary outcomes comprising Length of stay (LOS), invasive mechanical ventilation, and mortality as well as secondary in the form of D-dimer, platelets, C-reactive protein (CRP), Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), and Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC). During hospitalization, 269 patients received enoxaparin across varying severity levels comprising mild, moderate, and severe, while the Wilcoxon test was used to analyze the efficacy in each group. Additionally, the differences in patient characteristic profiles across the severity levels were determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The increase in mortality rate and the need for mechanical ventilation were directly proportional to the level of severity. D-dimer decreased from 1308.87 ng/ml to 979.83 ng/ml (p=<0,001) as well as from 1758.41 ng/ml to 1510.68 ng/ml (p=<0,001) in the mild and moderate levels respectively. The platelet increased from 225.65 to 369.39 x103/µl (p=<0,001) in mild and 256.77 to 398.97 x103/µl (p=<0,001) in moderate. Moreover, CRP improved in both mild 52.62 to 49.58 mg/l (p=0.031) and moderate 92.99 to 42.66 mg/l, (p=<0,001). Based on the results, enoxaparin effectively improves D-dimer, platelet, and CRP levels in mild and moderate but not in severe conditions, however, no effect was found on LOS, NLR, and ALC.


Abate, B. B., Kassie, A. M., Kassaw, M. W., Aragie, T. G., & Masresha, S. A. (2020). Sex difference in coronavirus disease (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 10(10), 1–10.
Al-Samkari, H., Gupta, S., Leaf, R. K., Wang, W., Rosovsky, R. P., Brenner, S. K., Hayek, S. S., Berlin, H., Kapoor, R., Shaefi, S., Melamed, M. L., Sutherland, A., Radbel, J., Green, A., Garibaldi, B. T., Srivastava, A., Leonberg-Yoo, A., Shehata, A. M., Flythe, J. E., … Leaf, D. E. (2021). Thrombosis, bleeding, and the observational effect of early therapeutic anticoagulation on survival in critically ill patients with covid-19. Annals of Internal Medicine, 174(5), 622–632.
Albani, F., Sepe, L., Fusina, F., Prezioso, C., Baronio, M., Caminiti, F., Di Maio, A., Faggian, B., Franceschetti, M. E., Massari, M., Salvaggio, M., & Natalini, G. (2020). Thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin is associated with a lower death rate in patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A cohort study. EClinicalMedicine, 27(April), 100562.
Arachchillage, D. R. J., & Laffan, M. (2020). Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 18(5), 1233–1234.
Berlin, D. A., Gulick, R. M., & Martinez, F. J. (2020). Severe Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine, 383(25), 2451–2460.
Billett, H. H., Reyes-Gil, M., Szymanski, J., Ikemura, K., Stahl, L. R., Lo, Y., Rahman, S., Gonzalez-Lugo, J. D., Kushnir, M., Barouqa, M., Golestaneh, L., & Bellin, E. (2020). Anticoagulation in COVID-19: Effect of Enoxaparin, Heparin, and Apixaban on Mortality. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 120(12), 1691–1699.
Bwire, G. M. (2020). Coronavirus: Why Men are More Vulnerable to Covid-19 Than Women? SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine, 2(7), 874–876.
Cardillo, G., Viggiano, G. V., Russo, V., Mangiacapra, S., Cavalli, A., Castaldo, G., Agrusta, F., Snr, A. B., Snr, M. A., Iannuzzo, M., Sacco, C., Lodigiani, C., Fontanella, A., & Di Micco, P. (2021). Antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects of fondaparinux and enoxaparin in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: The FONDENOXAVID study. Journal of Blood Medicine, 12, 69–75.
CDC. (2022). Covid-19.
Chen, N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F., Han, Y., Qiu, Y., Wang, J., Liu, Y., Wei, Y., Xia, J., Yu, T., Zhang, X., & Zhang, L. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet, 395(10223), 507–513.
Costanzo, L., Palumbo, F. P., Ardita, G., Antignani, P. L., Arosio, E., & Failla, G. (2020). Coagulopathy, thromboembolic complications, and the use of heparin in COVID-19 pneumonia. Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders, 8(5), 711–716.
Dutt, T., Simcox, D., Downey, C., McLenaghan, D., King, C., Gautam, M., Lane, S., & Burhan, H. (2020). Thromboprophylaxis in COVID-19: Anti-FXa - The missing factor? American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 202(3), 455–457.
Elbeddini, A., Gerochi, R., & Elshahawi, A. (2020). Evaluation of the prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-associated coagulopathy. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice, 13(1), 1–9.
Fareed, J., Hoppensteadt, D., Walenga, J., Iqbal, O., Ma, Q., Jeske, W., & Sheikh, T. (2003). Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of enoxaparin: Implications for clinical practice. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 42(12), 1043–1057.
Gemmati, D., & Tisato, V. (2020). Genetic Hypothesis and Pharmacogenetics Side of Renin-Angiotensin-System in COVID-19. 11(9), 1–17.
Han, H., Ma, Q., Li, C., Liu, R., Zhao, L., Wang, W., Zhang, P., Liu, X., Gao, G., Liu, F., Jiang, Y., Cheng, X., Zhu, C., & Xia, Y. (2020). Profiling serum cytokines in COVID-19 patients reveals IL-6 and IL-10 are disease severity predictors. Emerging Microbes and Infections, 9(1), 1123–1130.
Hendren, N. S., De Lemos, J. A., Ayers, C., Das, S. R., Rao, A., Carter, S., Rosenblatt, A., Walchok, J., Omar, W., Khera, R., Hegde, A. A., Drazner, M. H., Neeland, I. J., & Grodin, J. L. (2021). Association of Body Mass Index and Age with Morbidity and Mortality in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: Results from the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry. Circulation, 135–144.
Iba, T., Levy, J. H., Connors, J. M., Warkentin, T. E., Thachil, J., & Levi, M. (2020). The unique characteristics of COVID-19 coagulopathy. Critical Care, 24(1), 4–11.
Jiménez-Soto, R., Aguilar-Soto, M., Rodríguez-Toledo, C. A., Camiro-Zúñiga, A., & Demichelis, R. (2021). The impact of different prophylactic anticoagulation doses on the outcomes of patients with COVID-19. Thrombosis Research, 202(December 2020), 14–16.
Jin, J., Bai, P., He, W., Wu, F., Liu, X., Han, D., & Liu, S. (2020). Gender Differences in Patients With COVID-19 : Focus on Severity and Mortality. Frontiers in Public Health, 8(152), 1–6.
Kamel, A. M., Sobhy, M., Magdy, N., Sabry, N., & Farid, S. (2021). Anticoagulation outcomes in hospitalized Covid-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies. Reviews in Medical Virology, 31(3).
Kluwer, W. (2022a). Enoxaparin : Drug Interactions.
Kluwer, W. (2022b). Enoxaparin (Lexi-Drugs).
Kohansal Vajari, M., Shirin, M., Pourbagheri-Sigaroodi, A., Akbari, M. E., Abolghasemi, H., & Bashash, D. (2021). COVID-19-related coagulopathy: A review of pathophysiology and pharmaceutical management. Cell Biology International, 45(9), 1832–1850.
Langer, F., Kluge, S., Klamroth, R., & Oldenburg, J. (2020). Coagulopathy in COVID-19 and Its Implication for Safe and Efficacious Thromboprophylaxis. Hamostaseologie, 40(3), 264–269.
Li, Xiaochen, Xu, S., Yu, M., Wang, K., Tao, Y., Zhou, Y., Shi, J., Zhou, M., Wu, B., Yang, Z., Zhang, C., Yue, J., Zhang, Z., Renz, H., Liu, X., Xie, J., Xie, M., & Zhao, J. (2020). Risk factors for severity and mortality in adult COVID-19 inpatients in Wuhan. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 146(1), 110–118.
Li, Xinyang, Zhong, X., Wang, Y., Zeng, X., Luo, T., & Liu, Q. (2021). Clinical determinants of the severity of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 16(5 May), 1–21.
Liu, Y., Sun, W., Guo, Y., Chen, L., Zhang, L., Zhao, S., Long, D., & Yu, L. (2020). Association between platelet parameters and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019: Retrospective cohort study. Platelets, 31(4), 490–496.
Liverpool Drug Interactions Group. (2022). Interactions with experimental COVID-19 Antiviral Therapies. University of Liverpool, February, 1–6.
Lopes, R. D., de Barros e Silva, P. G. M., Furtado, R. H. M., Macedo, A. V. S., Bronhara, B., Damiani, L. P., Barbosa, L. M., de Aveiro Morata, J., Ramacciotti, E., de Aquino Martins, P., de Oliveira, A. L., Nunes, V. S., Ritt, L. E. F., Rocha, A. T., Tramujas, L., Santos, S. V., Diaz, D. R. A., Viana, L. S., Melro, L. M. G., … Berwanger, O. (2021). Therapeutic versus prophylactic anticoagulation for patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 and elevated D-dimer concentration (ACTION): an open-label, multicentre, randomized, controlled trial. The Lancet, 397(10291), 2253–2263.
Mennuni, M. G., Renda, G., Grisafi, L., Rognoni, A., Colombo, C., Lio, V., Foglietta, M., Petrilli, I., Pirisi, M., Spinoni, E., Azzolina, D., Hayden, E., Aimaretti, G., Avanzi, G. C., Bellan, M., Cantaluppi, V., Capponi, A., Castello, L. M., D’Ardes, D., … Patti, G. (2021). Clinical outcome with different doses of low-molecular-weight heparin in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, 52(3), 782–790.
Moores, L. K., Tritschler, T., Brosnahan, S., Carrier, M., Collen, J. F., Doerschug, K., Holley, A. B., Jimenez, D., Le Gal, G., Rali, P., & Wells, P. (2020). Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of VTE in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report. Chest, 158(3), 1143–1163.
Motta, J. K., Ogunnaike, R. O., Shah, R., Stroever, S., Cedeño, H. V., Thapa, S. K., Chronakos, J. J., Jimenez, E. J., Petrini, J., & Hegde, A. (2020). Clinical Outcomes With the Use of Prophylactic Versus Therapeutic Anticoagulation in Coronavirus Disease 2019. Critical Care Explorations, 2(12), e0309.
Mousavi, S., Moradi, M., Khorshidahmad, T., & Motamedi, M. (2015). Anti-inflammatory effects of heparin and its derivatives: A systematic review. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, 2015.
Mukherjee, S., & Pahan, K. (2021). Is COVID-19 Gender-sensitive? Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, 16, 38–47.
National Institutes of Health. (2021). Treatment Guidelines Panel. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nih, 2019, 1–243.
Nutescu, E. A., Burnett, A., Fanikos, J., Spinler, S., & Wittkowsky, A. (2016). Pharmacology of anticoagulants used in the treatment of venous thromboembolism. Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, 41(1), 15–31.
Ouassou, H., Kharchoufa, L., Bouhrim, M., Daoudi, N. E., Imtara, H., Bencheikh, N., ELbouzidi, A., & Bnouham, M. (2020). The Pathogenesis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Evaluation and Prevention. Journal of Immunology Research, 2020, 1–7.
Pangarsa, E. A., Setiawan, B., Santosa, D., Naibaho, R. M., Rizky, D., Suyono, Tobing, M. L., & Suharti, C. (2020). Position paper from the Indonesian society of thrombosis and hemostasis (Inasth), Semarang chapter: Management of coagulopathy in COVID-19. Bali Medical Journal, 9(2), 482–488.
Parasher, A. (2021). COVID-19: Current understanding of its Pathophysiology, Clinical presentation and Treatment. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 97(1147), 312–320.
Parisi, R., Costanzo, S., Di Castelnuovo, A., De Gaetano, G., Donati, M. B., & Iacoviello, L. (2021). Different Anticoagulant Regimens, Mortality, and Bleeding in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: A Systematic Review and an Updated Meta-Analysis. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 47(4), 372–391.
PDPI, PERKI, PAPDI, PERDATIN, & IDAI. (2020). Pedoman tatalaksana COVID-19 Edisi 3 Desember 2020. In Pedoman Tatalaksana COVID-19.
Peckham, H., de Gruijter, N. M., Raine, C., Radziszewska, A., Ciurtin, C., Wedderburn, L. R., Rosser, E. C., Webb, K., & Deakin, C. T. (2020). Male sex identified by global COVID-19 meta-analysis as a risk factor for death and ITU admission. Nature Communications, 11(1), 1–10.
Perepu, U. S., Chambers, I., Wahab, A., Ten Eyck, P., Wu, C., Dayal, S., Sutamtewagul, G., Bailey, S. R., Rosenstein, L. J., & Lentz, S. R. (2021). Standard prophylactic versus intermediate-dose enoxaparin in adults with severe COVID-19: A multi-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 19(9), 2225–2234.
Pivonello, R., Auriemma, S., & Pivonello, C. (2021). Sex Disparities in COVID-19 Severity and Outcome : Are Men Weaker or Women Stronger ? Neuroendocrinology, 111, 1066–1085.
Poudel, A., Poudel, Y., Adhikari, A., Aryal, B. B., Dangol, D., Bajracharya, T., Maharjan, A., & Gautam, R. (2021). D-dimer as a biomarker for assessment of COVID-19 prognosis: D-dimer levels on admission and its role in predicting disease outcome in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. PLoS ONE, 16(8 August 2021), 1–13.
Price, L. C., McCabe, C., Garfield, B., & Wort, S. J. (2020). Thrombosis and COVID-19 pneumonia: The clot thickens! European Respiratory Journal, 56(1).
Rentsch, C. T., Beckman, J. A., Tomlinson, L., Gellad, W. F., Alcorn, C., Kidwai-Khan, F., Skanderson, M., Brittain, E., King, J. T., Ho, Y. L., Eden, S., Kundu, S., Lann, M. F., Greevy, R. A., Ho, P. M., Heidenreich, P. A., Jacobson, D. A., Douglas, I. J., Tate, J. P., … Freiberg, M. S. (2021). Early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation for prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 mortality in patients admitted to hospital in the United States: Cohort study. The BMJ, 372.
Rosovsky, R. P., Sanfilippo, K. M., Wang, T. F., Rajan, S. K., Shah, S., Martin, K. A., Ní Áinle, F., Huisman, M., Hunt, B. J., Kahn, S. R., Kevane, B., Lee, A. Y. Y., McLintock, C., & Baumann Kreuziger, L. (2020). Anticoagulation practice patterns in COVID-19: A global survey. Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 4(6), 969–983.
Rusdiana, T., & Akbar, R. (2020). Perkembangan Terkini Terapi Antikoagulan Pada Pasien Covid-19 Bergejala Berat. Jurnal Sains Farmasi & Klinis, 7(3), 244.
Selanno, Y., Widaningsih, Y., Esa, T., & Arif, M. (2021). Analysis of Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio and Absolute Lymphocyte Count as Predictors of Severity of COVID-19 Patients. Indonesian Journal of Clinical Pathology and Medical Laboratory, 27(2), 184–189.
Shi, C., Wang, C., Wang, H., Yang, C., Cai, F., Zeng, F., Cheng, F., Liu, Y., Zhou, T., Deng, B., Vlodavsky, I., Li, J. P., & Zhang, Y. (2020). The Potential of Low Molecular Weight Heparin to Mitigate Cytokine Storm in Severe COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Clinical and Translational Science, 13(6), 1087–1095.
Simegn, A., Mesfin, D., Minuye, B., Ayanaw, B., & Muche, T. (2021). Sex and Gender Differences for Severity and Mortality from COVID-19 : Rapid Evidence Synthesis for the Implication of Health Equity in Access Policies. Health Science Journal, 15(8), 1–3.
Singhal, T. (2020). A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 87(4), 281–286.
Smits, S. L., De Lang, A., Van Den Brand, J. M. A., Leijten, L. M., Van Ijcken, W. F., Eijkemans, M. J. C., Van Amerongen, G., Kuiken, T., Andeweg, A. C., Osterhaus, A. D. M. E., & Haagmans, B. L. (2010). Exacerbated innate host response to SARS-CoV in aged non-human primates. PLoS Pathogens, 6(2).
Spyropoulos, A. C., Goldin, M., Giannis, D., Diab, W., Wang, J., Khanijo, S., Mignatti, A., Gianos, E., Cohen, M., Sharifova, G., Lund, J. M., Tafur, A., Lewis, P. A., Cohoon, K. P., Rahman, H., Sison, C. P., Lesser, M. L., Ochani, K., Agrawal, N., … Weitz, J. I. (2021). Efficacy and Safety of Therapeutic-Dose Heparin vs Standard Prophylactic or Intermediate-Dose Heparins for Thromboprophylaxis in High-risk Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: The HEP-COVID Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Internal Medicine, 181(12), 1612–1620.
Sunggoro, A. J., Purwanto, I., & Hasan, M. (2020). Trombosis pada corona virus disease (COVID-19). Jurnal Kedokteran Syiah Kuala, 20(3), 191–198.
Tang, N., Bai, H., Chen, X., Gong, J., Li, D., & Sun, Z. (2020). Anticoagulant treatment is associated with decreased mortality in severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients with coagulopathy. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 18(5), 1094–1099.
Vaughn, V. M., Yost, M., Abshire, C., Flanders, S. A., Paje, D., Grant, P., Kaatz, S., Kim, T., & Barnes, G. D. (2021). Trends in Venous Thromboembolism Anticoagulation in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19. JAMA Network Open, 4(6), 1–13.
Vitiello, A., & Ferrara, F. (2021). Low Molecular Weight Heparin, Anti-inflammatory/Immunoregulatory and Antiviral Effects, a Short Update. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy.
Wang, D., Hu, B., Hu, C., Zhu, F., Liu, X., Zhang, J., Wang, B., Xiang, H., Cheng, Z., Xiong, Y., Zhao, Y., Li, Y., Wang, X., & Peng, Z. (2020). Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, 323(11), 1061–1069.
Wang, X., Zhang, H., Du, H., Ma, R., Nan, Y., & Zhang, T. (2021). Risk Factors for COVID-19 in Patients with Hypertension. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, 2021.
WHO. (2022). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.
Yao, Y., Cao, J., Wang, Q., Shi, Q., Liu, K., Luo, Z., Chen, X., Chen, S., Yu, K., Huang, Z., & Hu, B. (2020). D-dimer as a biomarker for disease severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients: A case control study. Journal of Intensive Care, 8(1), 1–11.
Zhan, H., Chen, H., Liu, C., Cheng, L., Yan, S., Li, H., & Li, Y. (2021). Diagnostic Value of D-Dimer in COVID-19: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression. Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis, 27.
Zhang, J., Dong, X., Liu, G., & Gao, Y. (2022). Risk and Protective Factors for COVID ‑ 19 Morbidity , Severity , and Mortality. Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology.
Zhang, L., Feng, X., Zhang, D., Jiang, C., Mei, H., Wang, J., Zhang, C., Li, H., Xia, X., Kong, S., Liao, J., Jia, H., Pang, X., Song, Y., Tian, Y., Wang, B., Wu, C., Yuan, H., Zhang, Y., … Xie, M. (2020). Deep Vein Thrombosis in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Outcome. Circulation, 142(2), 114–128.
Zhou, F., Yu, T., Du, R., Fan, G., Liu, Y., Liu, Z., Xiang, J., Wang, Y., Song, B., Gu, X., Guan, L., Wei, Y., Li, H., Wu, X., Xu, J., Tu, S., Zhang, Y., Chen, H., & Cao, B. (2020). Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. The Lancet, 395(10229), 1054–1062.
Zhou, X., Cheng, Z., Luo, L., Zhu, Y., Lin, W., Ming, Z., Chen, W., & Hu, Y. (2021). Incidence and impact of disseminated intravascular coagulation in COVID-19 a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thrombosis Research, 201(November 2020), 23–29.
Zhu, Z., Cai, T., Fan, L., Lou, K., Hua, X., Huang, Z., & Gao, G. (2020). Clinical value of immune-inflammatory parameters to assess the severity of coronavirus disease 2019. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 95, 332–339.
How to Cite
Suprapti, B., Debora, L., Kusumawati, D., Dery PS, A., T, G. N., Arini, M. N., & Aryanti, L. D. (2022). Analysis of Enoxaparin Effectiveness Based on COVID-19 Severity: A Study in a Secondary Hospital in Bandung, Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy, 33(3), 381-393.
Review Article