An overview of the role of Zingiber officinale as an antimicrobial resistance (AMR) solution and a source of antioxidants

  • Ni Kadek Yunita Sari Program of Biology, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Universitas Dhyana Pura.Jl. Raya Padang Luwih, Badung 80351, Bali, Indonesia
  • Anak Agung Ayu Putri Permatasari Study program of Biology, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Universitas Dhyana Pura, North Kuta, Badung (80361) Bali, Indonesia
  • Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
  • Almando Geraldi Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
  • Putu Angga Wiradana Study program of Biology, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Universitas Dhyana Pura, North Kuta, Badung (80361) Bali, Indonesia
  • I Gede Widhiantara Study program of Biology, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Universitas Dhyana Pura, North Kuta, Badung (80361) Bali, Indonesia
  • Novaria Sari Dewi Panjaitan Center for Biomedical Research, Research Organization for Health, National Research and Innovation Agency, Cibinong Science Center, Cibinong - Bogor Indonesia
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, gene transfer, Biofilm formation, bacterial infection, Zingiber officinale


In this review, we describe the known mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance which was increasing in this era, due to the misuse of antimicrobial agents such as antibiotics, or genetic and phenotypic mechanisms. In this review, the concerns, especially addressed by designated researchers in their study and WHO in their observations and reports, regarding the types or strains of bacteria with antimicrobial resistances were described. In addition, the predicted mechanisms that promote the development and occurrence of antimicrobial resistances, such as bacterial biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer, genetic mutations, free DNA which contains antimicrobial resistance genes, plasmids transfer through transformation or conjugation from bacterial cell to cell were well described. In addition, we also tried to describe the use of Z. officinale. The antimicrobial capabilities of this herbal plant are attributed to its capacity to create many secondary metabolites with rather complicated structures that have antibacterial and antioxidant characteristics. Z. officinale had been used for many kinds of diseases treatment traditionally. And along the way, the advance techniques of research in chemistry and biology fields had found out the composition and bioactive compound. In this review, the common online databases such as PubMed, Semantic Scholar, Crossref, Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science (WoS) were utilized to conduct literature searches. According to recent progress of antimicrobial cases observed, the efforts to strengthen the surveillance, general health systems, tightened the antimicrobial medicine distribution rules, and education for public are indeed needed.


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How to Cite
Ni Kadek Yunita Sari, Anak Agung Ayu Putri Permatasari, Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih, Almando Geraldi, Putu Angga Wiradana, I Gede Widhiantara, & Novaria Sari Dewi Panjaitan. (2023). An overview of the role of Zingiber officinale as an antimicrobial resistance (AMR) solution and a source of antioxidants. Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy, 34(1), 1-23.
Review Article