Publication Ethics

Ethics Statement

Our ethical guidelines are based on the Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors provided by COPE.

Publication Decisions

The editor holds the responsibility for determining the articles suitable for publication in the journal. Decisions are influenced by the policies of the journal's editorial board and are subject to legal requirements, such as those pertaining to libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. The editor may consult with other editors or reviewers in reaching a decision.

Fair Play

Editors are expected to evaluate manuscripts solely based on their intellectual content, without considering factors such as race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.


The editor and editorial staff are obliged to maintain the confidentiality of submitted manuscripts. Information about a manuscript should only be disclosed to the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as necessary.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

Any unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be utilized in the editor's own research without explicit written consent from the author.


Duties of Reviewers

Contribution to Editorial Decisions

Peer review aids the editor in making editorial decisions and can help authors improve their papers through communication.


Reviewers should promptly notify the editor if they feel unqualified to review a manuscript or if a timely review is not feasible.


Reviewers must treat manuscripts as confidential and refrain from sharing or discussing them with unauthorized individuals.

Standards of Objectivity

Reviews should be conducted objectively, without personal criticism of the author. Referees should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.

Acknowledgement of Sources

Reviewers should identify relevant unpublished work and bring any substantial similarity or overlap with other published papers to the editor's attention.

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

Reviewers must keep privileged information obtained through peer review confidential and avoid using it for personal advantage. They should not review manuscripts involving conflicts of interest with the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.


Duties of Authors

Reporting Standards

Authors should present an accurate account of their original research and provide an objective discussion of its significance. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements are considered unethical.

Originality and Plagiarism

Authors must ensure their work is entirely original, and proper citation or quotation should be used for the work and/or words of others.

Multiple, Redundant or Concurrent Publication

Authors should not submit manuscripts describing essentially the same research to more than one journal simultaneously.

Acknowledgement of Sources

Proper acknowledgment of others' work is essential, and influential publications should be cited.

Authorship of the Paper

Authorship should be limited to those who significantly contributed to the study. The corresponding author must ensure appropriate co-authors and their approval of the final version and submission for publication.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

Authors must disclose any financial or substantive conflicts of interest that could influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript.

Fundamental Errors in Published Works

Authors are obligated to promptly inform the journal editor of significant errors or inaccuracies in their published work and collaborate to retract or correct the paper.