Analisis Tata Kelola Kebijakan Sosial Penanganan Pandemi COVID-19 di Indonesia Berdasarkan Perspektif Adaptive Governance
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Keywords

Pandemic
COVID-19
Adaptive Governance
Social Policy

Abstract

Abstrak

Pandemi COVID-19 merupakan tantangan besar yang dihadapi seluruh negara di dunia sejak tahun 2020. Kebijakan sosial menjadi instrumen kebijakan paling penting pada masa pandemi. Pandemi COVID-19 memiliki karakteristik dinamis, eksponensial, serta dipenuhi kompleksitas dan ketidakpastian. Hal ini membuat implementasi kebijakan sosial perlu dilakukan dengan dasar tata kelola adaptif (adaptive governance). Studi ini melakukan analisis komparatif terhadap implementasi kebijakan sosial di Indonesia dan Brazil pada periode pandemi. Analisis dilakukan berdasarkan 7 indikator tata kelola adaptif yang dioperasikan dalam flexible arrangements dan barriers to flexible arrangements. Temuan dari studi ini menunjukkan bahwa di Indonesia, proses kebijakan, konten kebijakan, dan struktur organisasi bersifat fleksibel. Namun, terdapat konflik kepentingan, ketidakjelasan distribusi kewenangan, ketidakjelasan distribusi biaya & manfaat, dan distrust. Sementara di Brazil, konten kebijakan fleksibel namun proses kebijakan dan struktur organisasi tidak fleksibel. Selain itu, terdapat konflik kepentingan dan distrust, namun tidak terdapat ketidakjelasan distribusi kewenangan maupun distribusi biaya & manfaat.

Kata Kunci: Pandemi, COVID-19, Adaptive Governance, Kebijakan Sosial.

 

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic is a major challenge faced by countries worldwide since 2020. Social policy, therefore, becomes an important policy instrument. Characteristically, the pandemic is dynamic, exponential, and filled with complexity and uncertainty. This makes adaptive governance crucial to the implementation of social policies. This study compares the implementation of social policies in Indonesia and Brazil during the pandemic. The analysis is based on 7 indicators of adaptive governance, operationalized in flexible arrangements and barriers to flexible arrangements. The findings shows that in Indonesia, the policy process, policy content, and organizational structure are flexible. However, there are conflicts of interest, unclear distribution of authority, unclear distribution of costs & benefits, and distrust. In Brazil, the policy content is flexible, while the policy process and organizational structure are not. Conflict of interest and distrust are present, while the distribution of authority and distribution of costs & benefits are clear.

Keywords: Pandemic, COVID-19, Adaptive Governance, Social Policy.

https://doi.org/10.22146/jsds.5226
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