The Effect of Extraction Method on Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Salam Leaves (Syzygium polyanthum) using DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhidrazil)

Sri Luliana(1*), Hafrizal Riza(2), Eneng Neni Indriyani(3)

(1) Faculty of Medicine, Tanjungpura University, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat
(2) Faculty of Medicine, Tanjungpura University, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat
(3) Faculty of Medicine, Tanjungpura University, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat
(*) Corresponding Author


Extraction is an important step in separating bioactive compounds from the plant. The selection of extraction technique is also important in the standardization of herbal products, for if not observed it can remove the desired soluble constituents. One of Indonesia’s endemic plants which have been proven to have an antioxidant activity is Salam leaves (Syzygium polyanthum). This study aims to determine the effect of extraction method on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of S. polyanthum leaves by counteracting free radicals mechanism using DPPH. The S. polyanthum leaves were extracted by maceration, soxletation, and infusa methods, and tested for the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. The results showed that the total phenolic content of each method extration is different. The total of the phenolic content extraction by maceration, soxhlet, and infusa method respectively were 338.62±21.3; 227.72±21.6; and 144.48±8.2 mgGAE/g. The best antioxidant activity was maceration method with IC50 17.53±0.11 µg/mL followed by soxhlet and infusa which were 18.73±0.31 and 40.26±0.18 µg/mL. The research conclusion is that the extraction method has an effect on the total phenol and antioxidant activity of S. polyanthum leaves.


Extraction Method; Syzygium polyanthum; total phenol; Antioxidant Activity

Full Text:



Andriyani, R., Budiati, T.A. & Pudjiraharti, S., 2015. Effect of Extraction Method on Total Flavonoid, Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Anti Bacterial Activity of Zingiberis officinale Rhizome. Procedia Chemistry, 16, pp.149–154.

Bahriul, P., Rahman, N. & Wahid, A., 2014. Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Daun Salam Dengan Menggunakan 1,1-Difenil-2-Pikrilhidrazil. Jurnal Akademi Kimia, 3, pp.143–149.

Chaisawangwong, W. & Gritsanapan, W., 2009. Extraction method for high free radical scavenging activity of Siamese neem tree flowers. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 31(August 2017), pp.419–423.

Dhanani, T. et al., 2017. Effect of extraction methods on yield , phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Withania somnifera. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10, pp.S1193–S1199.

Diem, Q. et al., 2013. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content , total flavonoid content , and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 22(3), pp.296–302.

Har, L.W. & Ismail, I.S., 2012. Antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids of Syzygium polyanthum ( Wight ) Walp leaves. Int. Journal Medicinal Aromatic Plants, 2(2), pp.219–228.

Hasmida, M.N. et al., 2014. Effect of different extraction techniques on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Quercus infectoria galls. International Food Research Journal, 21(3), pp.1075–1079.

Hassan, H. et al., 2015. Phytochemicals Screening, Antioxidant Activity and Frying Quality as Affected by Aqueous Extract of Malaysian Seraikayu (Eugenia polyantha). Int. Journal of Research in Applied, Natural and Social Sciences, 3(10), pp.89–98.

Kikuzaki, H. et al., 2002. Antioxidant Properties of Ferulic Acid and Its Related Compounds. Journal Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, pp.2161–2168.

Lelono, R.A.A., Tachibana, S. & Itoh, K., 2009. In vitro antioxidative activities and polyphenol content of Eugenia polyantha wight grown in Indonesia. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 12(24), pp.1564–1570.

Malik, A. & Ahmad, A.R., 2013. Antiradiarrheal Activity of Etanolic Extract of Bay Leaves (Syzygium polianthum). Int. Research Journal of Pharmacy, 4(4), pp.106–108.

Molyneux, P., 2004. The Use of the Stable Free Radical Diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) for Estimating Antioxidant Activity. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 26(2), pp.211–219.

Nor, E. et al., 2018. GC-MS Analysis of Phytochemical Compounds in Syzygium polyanthum Leaves Extracted using Ultrasound-Assisted Method. Pharmacogn Journal, 10(1), pp.110–119.

Perumal, S. et al., 2012. Potential Antiradical Activity and Cytotoxicity Assessment of Ziziphus mauritiana and Syzygium polyanthum. Int. Journal of Pharmacology, 8(6), pp.535–541.

Rizki, M.I. & Hariandja, E.M., 2016. Review : Aktivitas Farmakologis , Senyawa Aktif , dan Mekanisme Kerja Daun Salam (Syzygium polyanthum). Perkembangan Terkini Sains Farmasi & Klinik. pp. 239–244.

Ruchiyat, 2013. Analisis Fisikokimia dan Aktivitas Antioksidan dari Ekstrak Metanol Daun Salam (Syzygium polyanthum [Wight] Walp.) Asal Jawa Barat. Jurnal Ilmiah Farmako Bahari, 4(2), pp.68–84.

Sutrisna, E.M. et al., 2016. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activity of 70% Ethanolic Extract of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Leaf from Indonesia. Int. Journal Res. Ayurveda Pharm, 7, pp.214–216.

Upadhya, V., Pai, S.R. & Hegde, H. V, 2015. Effect of method and time of extraction on total phenolic content in comparison with antioxidant activities in different parts of Achyranthes aspera. Journal of King Saud University - Science, 27(3), pp.204–208.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 6381 | views : 6875


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Majalah Obat Tradisional

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

©Majalah Obat Tradisional (Traditional Medicine Journal)
 ISSN 2406-9086
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Gadjah Mada