Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Peel Extract in White Male Rats

https://doi.org/10.22146/mot.76947

Betharia Lorenza Br Subakti(1), Chrismis Novalinda Ginting(2), Linda Chiuman(3*)

(1) Biomedical Science Magister Program, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Science of Prima Indonesia University, Medan, North Sumatera
(2) Biomedical Science Magister Program, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Science of Prima Indonesia University, Medan, North Sumatera
(3) Biomedical Science Magister Program, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Science of Prima Indonesia University, Medan, North Sumatera
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is a tropical fruit that is currently cultivated in all tropical parts of the world. It is popular to consume its fruit flesh, while the peel is often thrown away. This red dragon fruit peel (RDFPE) is known to possess lots of phytochemical compounds with multitudes of usage, amongst them as an analgesic and antipyretic. Therefore, the active compounds of RDFPE play an important role in the natural product. This study aims to observe and analyze the analgetic and antipyretic activity possessed by red dragon fruit peel. This study is an in-vivo experiment on 25 white male rats divided into five groups, in which each group receive Na CMC, acetaminophen, and the other three groups will receive three different doses of RDFPE (500 mg/kg, 750 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg), respectively. Acetic acid writhing and tail immersion methods were performed to induce inflammation and Brewer’s yeast injection performed induced pyrexia. In the investigation of the acetic acid writhing test, the intervention was administered before induction, and for the tail immersion test, induction was given before and after the intervention was administered. Meanwhile, in brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia, the rectal temperature was measured before induction, 24 hours after induction, and each hour for five four after the intervention; intervention was administered 24 hours after induction. This study found that RDFPE at the dose of 750 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg are effective as an analgesic by reducing the average writhing and delaying the tail retraction of the experiment subject and also effective as an antipyretic by reducing the elevated temperature of the experiment subject (p<0.05). This study concludes that RDFPE possesses analgesic and antipyretic activity, especially at the higher dose. Phytochemical compounds such as alkaloids and flavonoids are most likely responsible for this analgesic and antipyretic activity by inhibiting inflammation activity.


Keywords


Red dragon fruit peel; analgesic; antipyretic; in-vivo study; phytochemicals

Full Text:

PDF


References

Chiuman, Linda. 2019. “Protective Effect of Curcuma Zedoria Against Copper in Rats’ White Blood Cell.” American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 59 (1): 142–48.

Eka, Yanuar, Hendarto, Hendy, and Widjiati. 2017. “Effect of Hylocereus Polyrhizus Rind Extract Toward Interleukin-1β, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression, Endometriosis Implant Area.” International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 9 (8): 617–21.

Eldeen, Ibrahim M S, Foong, Shin Y, Ismail, Noraznawati, and Wong, Keng C. 2020. “Regulation of Pro ‑ Inflammatory Enzymes by the Dragon Fruits from Hylocereus undatus ( Haworth ) and Squalene ‑ Its Major Volatile Constituents.” Pharmacognosy Magazine 16 (68): 81–86.

Hendra, Rudi, Masdeatresa, Lidya, Abdulah, Rizky, and Haryani, Yuli. 2019. “Antibacterial Activity of Red Dragon Peel (Hylocereus Polyrhizus) Pigment.” Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1351 (1).

Joshi, Monica, and Prabhakar, Bala. 2020. “Phytoconstituents and Pharmaco-Therapeutic Benefits of Pitaya: A Wonder Fruit.” Journal of Food Biochemistry 44 (7): 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13260.

Kaul, Daniel R., Flanders, Scott A., Beck, James M., Saint, Sanjay, Kartikawati, Endah, Deswati, Dytha Andri, Pramudita, Bentari, et al. 2020. “Antifungal Activity of Red Dragon Peel (Hylocereus Polyrhizus).” Jurnal Sabdariffarma 21 (1): 124–28.

Khuzaimah, Siti, and Millati, Nuril. 2022. “Pengaruh Jumlah Ekstraksi Bertingkat Terhadap Yield Antosianin Pada Kulit Buah Naga Merah (Hylocereus Polyrhizus).” Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Kimia 6.

Le, Ngoc Lieu. 2022. “Functional Compounds in Dragon Fruit Peels and Their Potential Health Benefits: A Review.” International Journal of Food Science and Technology 57 (5): 2571–80.

Li, Xiaolan, Zhang, Zhi Hong, Qiao, Jiaqi, Qu, Wenjuan, Wang, Man Sheng, Gao, Xianli, Zhang, Cunsheng, Brennan, Charles S., and Qi, Xianghui. 2022. “Improvement of Betalains Stability Extracted from Red Dragon Fruit Peel by Ultrasound-Assisted Microencapsulation with Maltodextrin.” Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 82: 105897.

Liana, Rizal, Widowati, Wahyu, Fioni, Akbar, Khainir, Fachrial, Edy, and Lister, I Nyoman Ehrich. 2019. “Antioxidant and Anti-Hyaluronidase Activities of Dragon Fruit Peel Extract and Kaempferol-3-O- Rutinoside Aktivitas Antioksidan Dan Anti-Hialuronidase Ekstrak Kulit Buah Naga Dan Kaempferol-3-O- Rutinoside.” Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya 30 (4): 247–52.

Lin, Xing, Gao, Hongmao, Ding, Zheli, Zhan, Rulin, Zhou, Zhaoxi, and Ming, Jianhong. 2021. “Comparative Metabolic Profiling in Pulp and Peel of Green and Red Pitayas ( Hylocereus Polyrhizus and Hylocereus Undatus ) Reveals Potential Valorization in the Pharmaceutical and Food Industries” 2021.

Luo, Hui, Cai, Yongqiang, Peng, Zhijun, Liu, Tao, and Yang, Shengjie. 2014. “Chemical Composition and in Vitro Evaluation of the Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extracts of Pitaya ( Dragon Fruit ) Peel.” Chemistry Central Journal 8 (1): 1–7.

Luu, Thi-thuy-hai, Le, Truc-linh, Huynh, Nga, and Quintela-Alonso, Pablo. 2021. “Dragon Fruit : A Review of Health Benefits and Nutrients and Its Sustainable Development under Climate Changes in Vietnam.” Czech Journal of Food Sciences 39 (2): 71–94.

Mumtaz, Waheed, Ahmad, Saeed, Perveen, Sajida, and Rehman, Tayyeba. 2018. “Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and in Vivo Evaluation of Antipyretic Effects of Hydro-Methanolic Extract of Cleome Scaposa Leaves.” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medical Sciences 8 (1): 147–49.

Mutia, Maya Sari, and Chiuman, Linda. 2019. “Hepatoprotective Effect of Citrus Sinensis ( L .) Osbeck Ethanol Extract in Paracetamol-Induced Rats Efek Hepatoprotektif Ekstrak Etanol Citrus Sinensis L . Osbeck Pada Tikus Yang Diinduksi Parasetamol.” Majalah Kedokteran Bandung 51 (4): 189–93.

Saenjum, Chalermpong, Pattananandecha, Thanawat, and Nakagawa, Kouichi. 2021. “Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Phytochemicals and Related Stable Paramagnetic Species in Different Parts of Dragon Fruit.” Molecules 26 (3565).

Saini, Neeraj Kumar, and Singha, Manmohan. 2012. “Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activity of Methanolic Tecomaria Capensis Leaves Extract.” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2 (11): 870–74.

Sivamurugan, V, Thennarasan, S, Murugesan, S, and Chidambaranathan, N. 2016. “Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic Activity of the Methanol Extracts of Brown Alga Lobophora Variegata (JV Lamouroux) Womersley Ex EC Oliveir.” American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics 4 (2): 42–57.

Som, Ayub, Ahmat, Norizan, Amani, Hairul, and Hamid, Abdul. 2019. “A Comparative Study on Foliage and Peels of Hylocereus Undatus ( White Dragon Fruit ) Regarding Their Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content.” Heliyon, no. November 2018: e01244.

Sun, Yanan, Gao, Ling, Hou, Wei, and Wu, Jie. 2020. “β -Sitosterol Alleviates Inflammatory Response via Inhibiting the Activation of ERK / P38 and NF- κ B Pathways in LPS-Exposed BV2 Cells.” Biomed Research International.

Veronica, Sindani Akumu, Cheruiyot, Koech Samson, Bosibori, Maoga Jane, Munene, Ireri Moses, Murugi, Joan, and Piero, Ngugi Mathew. 2017. “Antiinflammatory , Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Dichloromethane Stem Bark Extract of Acacia Mellifera.” The Journal of Phytopharmacology 6 (4): 239–46.

Wahdaningsih, Sri, Wahyuono, Subagus, Riyanto, Sugeng, and Murwanti, Retno. 2021. “Β-Sitosterol of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus Polyrhizus) And Its Response to Macrophage And Nitric Oxide.” Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy 32 (3): 399–407.

Ye, Dongyang, Sun, Jing, and Li, Yinqian. 2021. “Veterinary Sciences Evaluation of Toxicity, Bacteriostatic, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antipyretic Activities of Huangqin-Honghua-Pugongying-Jinyinhua Extract.” Veterinary Sciences 8 (330).



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/mot.76947

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1178 | views : 1418

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2022 Majalah Obat Tradisional

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

©Majalah Obat Tradisional (Traditional Medicine Journal)
 ISSN 2406-9086
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Gadjah Mada