Defining Event Marketing as Engagement-Driven Marketing Communication

Romi Setiawan, Dermawan Wibisono, Mustika Sufiati Purwanegara
(Submitted 1 February 2021)
(Published 2 June 2022)


Event marketing has been one of the popular corporate marketing strategies for decades. The method is experiential and aims to transform not only attendees' perceptions but also their behavior. Despite this, several events have failed to build loyalty or the purchase intention beyond the entertainment value. In addition, event marketing now focuses on gaining purchase and visit intentions. When a company focuses on engagement, it causes an increased usage desire and longer customer lifetime value. However, as a consequence of such communications, research into the engagement effect of an event has been lacking. This study clarifies the literature review to better understand it. This study reviews 40 relevant scholarly publications from the Scopus database to build a novel concept of engagement-driven event marketing. This article narrows the search using event marketing characteristics. Previous research has found six event types: sports, festivals, concerts, special events, trade shows, and meetings. Five factors influence the attendees: purchase intention, visit intentions, word-of-mouth, brand loyalty, and brand equity . This paper presents a new event marketing model based on Nufer (2015) and Żyminkowska (2019). Attendee engagement is defined by the relationship among the event’s content, the event’s involvement, the event-brand image congruency, and the attendee’s experience of the event’s content. There are also suggested theoretical and managerial considerations.


event marketing, consumer engagement, congruity, involvement, experiential marketing.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/gamaijb.63788


Abdul-Ghani, E., Hyde, K. F., & Marshall, R. (2019). Conceptualising engagement in a con­sumer-to-consumer context. Australasian Marketing Journal, 27(1), 2–13. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ausmj.2018.06.004

Addis, M., Miniero, G., & Soscia, I. (2018). Facing contradictory emotions in event market­ing: leveraging on surprise. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 35(2), 183–193. https://doi. org/10.1108/JCM-06-2016-1862

Afonso, C., Silva, G. M., Gonçalves, H. M., & Duarte, M. (2018). The role of motivations and involvement in wine tourists’ intention to return: SEM and fsQCA findings. Journal of Business Research, 89(June), 313–321.

Alonso-Dos-Santos, M., Vveinhardt, J., Calabuig-Moreno, F., & Montoro-Rios, F. J. (2016). In­volvement and image transfer in sports sponsorship. Engineering Economics, 27(1), 78–89.

Altschwager, T., Conduit, J., Bouzdine-Chameeva, T., & Goodman, S. (2017). Branded market­ing events: engaging Australian and French wine consumers. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 27(2), 1–39.

Altschwager, T., Conduit, J., & Goodman, S. (2013). Branded Marketing Events : Facilitating Customer Brand Engagement. 7th International Conference of the Academy of Wine Business Research, January.

Amiri, N. Al, Rahim, R. E. A., & Ahmed, G. (2020). Leadership styles and organizational knowl­edge management activities: A systematic review. Gadjah Mada International Journal of Busi­ness, 22(3), 250–275.

Bachleda, C., Fakhar, A., & Elouazzani, Z. (2016). Quantifying the effect of sponsor awareness and image on the sports involvement–purchase intention relationship. Sport Management Review, 19(3), 293–305.

Baker, J. D. (2016). The Purpose, Process, and Methods of Writing a Literature Review. AORN Journal, 103(3), 265–269.

Baldus, B. J., Voorhees, C., & Calantone, R. (2015). Online brand community engagement: Scale development and validation. Journal of Business Research, 68(5), 978–985. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2014.09.035

Bitter, S., Grabner-Kräuter, S., & Breitenecker, R. J. (2014). Customer engagement behaviour in online social networks - The Facebook perspective. International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, 14(1–2), 197–220.

Bowden, J. L.-H. (2009). The process of customer engagement: A conceptual framework. Jour­nal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 17(1), 63–74. 6679170105

Brodie, R. J., Hollebeek, L. D., Jurić, B., & Ilić, A. (2011). Customer engagement: Conceptual do­main, fundamental propositions, and implications for research. Journal of Service Research, 14(3), 252–271.

Brodie, R. J., Ilic, A., Juric, B., & Hollebeek, L. (2013). Consumer engagement in a virtual brand community: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Business Research, 66, 105–114. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.07.029173

Bruhn, M., & Holzer, M. (2015). The role of the fit construct and sponsorship portfolio size for event sponsorship success: A field study. European Journal of Marketing, 49(5/6), 874–893.

Calabuig-Moreno, F., Crespo-Hervás, J., Núñez-Pomar, J., Valantine, I., & Staskeviciute-Butiene, I. (2016). Role of perceived value and emotions in the satisfaction and future inten­tions of spectators in sporting events. Engineering Economics, 27(2), 221–229. https://doi. org/10.5755/

Calder, B. J., Malthouse, E. C., & Schaedel, U. (2009). An Experimental Study of the Relationship between Online Engagement and Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Interactive Market­ing, 23(4), 321–331.

Chadegani, A. A., Salehi, H., Yunus, M. M., Farhadi, H., Fooladi, M., Farhadi, M., & Ebrahim, N. A. (2013). A Comparison between Two Main Academic Literature Collections : Web of Science and Scopus Databases. Asian Social Science, 9(5), 18–26. ass.v9n5p18

Close, A. G., & Lacey, R. (2013). Fit Matters? Asymmetrical Impact for Effectiveness on Sponsors and Event Marketers. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 22(2), 71–82. http://­2f61b-78d7-42d0-810a-3e4ad6510cc8%40sessionmgr4001&vid=3&hid=4207

Close, A., Lacey, R., & Cornwell, T. B. (2015). Visual processing and need for cognition can en­hance event-sponsorship outcomes: How sporting event sponsorships benefit from the way attendees process them. Journal of Advertising Research, 55(2), 206–215. https://doi. org/10.2501/JAR-55-2-206-215

Coelho, M. G. R., de Amorim, J. G. B., & de Almeida, V. M. C. (2019). Sports mega-event sponsorship: The impact of FIFA reputation and world cup image on sponsor brand equity. BAR - Brazilian Administration Review, 16(1). 7692bar2019180071

Cornwell, T. B. (1995). Sponsorship-Linked Marketing Development. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 4(4), 13–24.

Cornwell, T. B. (2019). Less “Sponsorship As Advertising” and More Sponsorship-Linked Mar­keting As Authentic Engagement. Journal of Advertising, 48(1), 49–60. .1080/00913367.2019.1588809

Doyle, J. P., Pentecost, R. D., & Funk, D. C. (2014). The effect of familiarity on associated spon­sor and event brand attitudes following negative celebrity endorser publicity. Sport Man­agement Review, 17(3), 310–323.

Drengner, J., Gaus, H., & Jahn, S. (2008). Does flow influence the brand image in event market­ing? Journal of Advertising Research, 48(1).

Dwivedi, A. (2015). A higher-order model of consumer brand engagement and its impact on loyalty intentions. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 24(C), 100–109. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2015.02.007

Eisenlohr-Moul, T. A., Crofford, L. J., Howard, T. W., Yepes, J. F., Carlson, C. R., & De Leeuw, R. (2015). Parasympathetic reactivity in fibromyalgia and temporomandibular disorder: Associations with sleep problems, symptom severity, and functional impairment. Journal of Pain, 16(3), 247–257.

Fill, C., & Turnbull, S. (2016). Marketing Communication: Discovery Creation, and Conversation (Seventh 174

Ed). Pearson Education Limited.

Getz, D. (1989). Special events: Defining the product. Tourism Management, 10(2), 125–137.

Getz, D. (2007). Event Studies: Theory, Research and Policy for Planned Events. In Butter­worth-Heinemann.

Gopalakrishna, S., Malthouse, E. C., & Lawrence, J. M. (2017). Managing customer engagement at trade shows. Industrial Marketing Management, January, 0–1. indmarman.2017.11.015

Gupta, S. (2003). Event Marketing: Issues and Challenges. IIMB Management Review (Indian Insti­tute of Management Bangalore), 15(2), 87–96.­rect=true&db=bth&AN=11339085&lang=pt-br&site=ehost-live

Hahm, J., Breiter, D., Severt, K., Wang, Y., & Fjelstul, J. (2016). The relationship between sense of community and satisfaction on future intentions to attend an association’s annual meet­ing. Tourism Management, 52, 151–160.

Hede, A.-M., & Kellett, P. (2012). Building online brand communities: Exploring the benefits, challenges and risks in the Australian event sector. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 18(3), 239–250.

Hollebeek, L. (2011). Exploring customer brand engagement: definiton and themes. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 19(7), 555–573.

Hollebeek, L. D., Glynn, M. S., & Brodie, R. J. (2014). Consumer brand engagement in social me­dia: Conceptualization, scale development and validation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28(2), 149–165.

Hong, Y. H. (2015). The Effects of Political Socialization in Event Marketing on the Youth: — The Three Little Pigs and Good Luck Charms Campaigns in Taiwan’s 2012 Presidential Election. Asian Journal of Political Science, 23(2), 207–225. 5377.2015.1041146

Hutabarat, P., & Gayatri, G. (2014). the Influence of Sponsor-Event Congruence in Sponsorship of Music Festival. The South East Asian Journal of Management, 8(1), 47–64. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2014.10.015

Hwang, J., & Lee, K. (2018a). The antecedents and consequences of golf tournament spectators ’ memorable brand experiences. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 9(Decem­ber 2017), 1–11.

Hwang, J., & Lee, K. W. (2018b). The antecedents and consequences of golf tournament spec­tators’ memorable brand experiences. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 9, 1–11.

Kapustina, L., & Reshetilo, T. (2011). THE EVENT MARKETING IN CAR-SELLING IN­DUSTRY IN RUSSIA: THE EXPERIENCE AND THE EFFICIENCY. International Journal of Management Cases, 13(4), 151–155.

Ko, Y. J., Cattani, K., Lee, S. A., Kim, T. H., Yang, J. B., & Kim, Y. B. (2014). Consumer Satisfac­tion and Event Quality Perception: A Case of the 2009 World Professional Taekwondo Tour. The Journal of the International Association for Taekwondo Research, 1(1), 22–33. https://

Koo, J., & Lee, Y. (2018). Sponsor-event congruence effects: The moderating role of sport in­175

volvement and mediating role of sponsor attitudes. Sport Management Review. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.smr.2018.03.001

Lacey, R, Sneath, J. Z., Finney, Z. R., & Close, A. G. (2007). The impact of repeat attendance on event sponsorship effects. Journal of Marketing Communications, 13(4), 243–255. https://

Lacey, Russell, Close, A. G., & Finney, R. Z. (2010). The pivotal roles of product knowledge and corporate social responsibility in event sponsorship effectiveness. Journal of Busi­ness Research, 63(11), 1222–1228.­res.2009.11.001

Lee, J., Kim, S. H., & Kang, B. (2019). US DMOs and Meeting Planners, do they really EN­GAGE with each other? Customer engagement in the context of event industry. Journal of Convention and Event Tourism, 20(5), 351–374. 9.1674757

Lee, J. S., & Kang, J. (2015). Effects of Sport Event Satisfaction on Team Identification and Revisit Intent. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 24(4), 225–234. org/10.1108/IJSMS-14-04-2013-B002

Lee, S., Close, A. G., & Love, C. (2010). How information quality and market turbulence impact convention and visitors bureaus’ use of marketing information: Insights for destination and event marketing. Journal of Convention and Event Tourism, 11(4), 266–292. https://doi. org/10.1080/15470148.2010.530541

Li, H., Song, W., & Collins, R. (2013). Post-event visits as the sources of marketing strategy sustainability: A conceptual model approach. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 15(1), 74–95.

Lin, Y., Jiang, J., & Kerstetter, D. (2015). A Three-Component Framework for Trade Show Per­formance Evaluation. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 20(10), 1–25. https://doi. org/10.1177/1096348015619747

Mao, L. L., & Zhang, J. J. (2013). Impact of consumer involvement, emotions, and attitude toward Beijing Olympic Games on branding effectiveness of event sponsors. Sports, Business and Management: An International Journal, 3(3), 226–245. SBM-02-2011-0016

Marchini, A., Riganelli, C., & Diotallevi, F. (2016). The Success Factors of Food Events: The Case Study of Umbrian Extra Virgin Olive Oil. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 22(2), 147–167.

Martensen, A., & Gronholdt, L. (2008). How events work : understanding consumer responses to event marketing. Inovative Marketing, 4(4), 44–56.

Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H. S. C. (2019). Culture, Emotion, and Expression. In K. d. Keith (Ed.), CrossCultural Psychology: Contemporary Themes and Perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 501–515). John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Mazodier, M., & Merunka, D. (2012). Achieving brand loyalty through sponsorship: The role of fit and self-congruity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(6), 807–820. https://

Michelini, L., Iasevoli, G., & Theodoraki, E. (2017). Event venue satisfaction and its impact on sponsorship outcomes. Event Management, 21(3), 319–331.


Missaghian, R., & Pizarro Milian, R. (2019). A day at the university fair: ‘hot’ brands, ‘house of brands’ and promotional tactics in higher education. Journal of Marketing for Higher Educa­tion, 29(2), 153–172.

Nufer, G. (2015). Creating an image transfer through event marketing: principles, requirements and consequences. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 3(12), 1–18.

Palmer, S. E. (2002). Visual Awareness. In D. J. Levitin (Ed.), Foundations Of Cognitive Psychology (pp. 3–21). The MIT Press.

Papadimitriou, D., Kaplanidou, K. K., & Papacharalampous, N. (2016). Sport event-sponsor fit and its effects on sponsor purchase intentions: a non-consumer perspective among ath­letes, volunteers and spectators. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 31(2), 247–259.

Parshakov, P., Naidenova, I., & Barajas, A. (2020). Spillover effect in promotion: Evidence from video game publishers and eSports tournaments. Journal of Business Research, 118(Novem­ber 2018), 262–270.

Pokrywczynski, J., & Brinker, D. L. (2014). Congruency and Engagement Test in an Event Mar­keting Sponsorship Context. Journal of Promotion Management, 20(3), 345–357. https://doi. org/10.1080/10496491.2014.908799

Rai, S., & Nayak, K. (2018). Role of event personality and exhibitors’ eudaimonic and hedonic happiness in predicting event advocacy intentions: an empirical study. International Journal of Event and Festival Management.

Rivera, M., Semrad, K., & Croes, R. (2015). The five E’s in festival experience in the context of Gen Y: Evidence from a small island destination. Revista Española de Investigación de Market­ing ESIC, 19(2), 95–106.

Schmitt, B. H. (1999). Experiential Marketing: How to Get Customers to Sense, Feel, Think, Act, and Relate to Your Company and Brand. In The Free Press. Free Press.

Sel, Z. G., & Aktas, G. (2019). Advertising events: Content and semiotic analyses of Cannes Film Festival posters. Event Management, 23(2), 207–221. 8X15403853721169

Semrad, K. J., & Rivera, M. (2018). Advancing the 5E’s in festival experience for the Gen Y framework in the context of eWOM. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 7, 58–67.

Shin, H., Lee, H., & Perdue, R. R. (2018). The congruity effects of commercial brand sponsor­ship in a regional event. Tourism Management, 67, 168–179. tourman.2018.01.016

Singh, M., Kaushik, N. K., & Panghal, N. (2020). Food for Thought: Effect of Afternoon Meals on Executive Functioning of the Brain. International Archives of Integrated Medicine, 7(5), 32–38.­er?vid=1&sid=2bf95fd1-42a9-44ae-8373-026baa1948d4%40sdc-v-sessmgr01

So, K. K. F., King, C., & Sparks, B. (2012). Customer Engagement With Tourism Brands: Scale Development and Validation. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 38(3), 304–329.

Søilen, K. S. (2010). Boosting innovation and knowledge through delocalization: Market In­177

telligence at trade shows. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 8(3), 200–207. https://­d5=41006d041d2c4baee8d3cca14f600114

Soteriadis, M. D. (2016). Events sponsorship as a business partnership: Suggesting the criti­cal success factors. Tourismos, 11(5), 1–25. uri?eid=2-s2.0-85026441060&partnerID=40&md5=ed0e2b9c1e7e750af4c0e355c2b­b0a23

Speed, R., & Thompson, P. (2000). Determinants of Sports Sponsorship Response. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), 226–238.

Strafford, D., Crowther, P., & Schofield, P. (2018). Enlivenment and the Gruffalo: the unfolding story of events in destination shopping centres. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 9(2), 126–146.

Swart, K., George, R., Cassar, J., & Sneyd, C. (2018). The 2014 FIFA World CupTM: Tourists’ satisfaction levels and likelihood of repeat visitation to Rio de Janeiro. Journal of Des­tination Marketing and Management, 8(August 2016), 102–113. jdmm.2017.01.001

van Doorn, J., Lemon, K. N., Mittal, V., Nass, S., Pick, D., Pirner, P., & Verhoef, P. C. (2010). Customer engagement behavior: Theoretical foundations and research directions. Journal of Service Research, 13(3), 253–266.

Vivek, S. D., Beatty, S. E., Dalela, V., & Morgan, R. M. (2014). A generalized multidimensional scale for measuring customer engagement. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 22(4), 401–420.

Vivek, S. D., Beatty, S. E., & Morgan, R. M. (2012). Customer engagement: Exploring customer relationships beyond purchase. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 20(2), 127–145.

Wakefield, K. L. (2012). How sponsorships work: The sponsorship engagement model. Event Management, 16(2), 143–155.

Wohlfeil, M., & Whelan, S. (2004). Investigating Consumers’ Motivations To Particpate In Market­ing-Events.

Wohlfeil, M., & Whelan, S. (2005). Event-Marketing as Innovative Marketing Communications : Reviewing the German Experience. Journal of Customer Behavior, 4, 181–207.

Wohlfeil, M., & Whelan, S. (2006). Consumer Motivations to Participate in Event-Marketing Strategies. Journal of Marketing Management, 22, 643–669.

Wong, J., Li, T., Chen, A., & Peng, N. (2017). The Effect of Trade Show Environments On Vis­itors. Event Management, 21, 665–681.

Wood, E. H. (2009). Evaluating event marketing: Experience or outcome? Journal of Promotion Management, 15(1–2), 247–268.

Xiao, Y., & Watson, M. (2019). Guidance on Conducting a Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 39(1), 93–112.

Zarantonello, L., & Schmitt, B. H. (2013). The impact of event marketing on brand equity: The mediating roles of brand experience and brand attitude. International Journal of Advertising, 32(2), 255–280.

Żyminkowska, K. (2019). Customer Engagement in Theory and Practice: A Marketing Management Per­spective. Palgrave Macmillan


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.