Virtual Reality Heights Exposure and Its Impact on College Student’s Physiological Response and Emotional Condition

Brillianda Resibisma, Neila Ramdhani
(Submitted 16 March 2020)
(Published 28 October 2020)

Abstract


Various studies have been done to overcome excessive fear of heights. One way to overcome excessive fear of heights is to use exposure therapy. This study aimed to determine the effect of virtual reality heights exposure on physiological response and emotional condition in college students. The hypothesis of this study was that there is a significant effect of virtual reality heights exposure on physiological response and emotional condition that is characterized by changes in skin conductance when the stimulus is presented and changes in emotional condition after the stimulus is presented. The design applied in this study was a non-random pretest and posttest experiment. The results of this study indicated that there is a significant influence of virtual reality exposure on physiological response and emotional condition. Thus, the finding opens up opportunities for therapy using this method in Indonesia.

Keywords


emotional condition; height; physiological response; virtual reality exposure

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/gamajpp.54872

References


American Psychological Association. (2015). APA dictionary of psychology (2nd. edition). Washington: American Psychological Association. doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/14646-000

Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1(3), 185–216. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/135910457000100301

Dobricki, M., & Pauli, P. (2016). Sensorimotor body-environment interaction serves to regulate emotional experience and exploratory behavior. Heliyon, 2(10), e00173. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2016.e00173

Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Bruynzeel, M., Drost, L., & van der Mast, C. A. P. G. (2001). Virtual reality treatment in acrophobia: A comparison with exposure in vivo. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 4(3), 335–339. doi: https://doi.org/10.1089/109493101300210222

Gorini, A., Mosso, J. L., Mosso, D., Pineda, E., Ruíz, N. L., Ramíez, M., … Riva, G. (2009). Emotional response to virtual reality exposure across different cultures: The role of the attribution process. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(6), 699–705. doi: https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2009.0192

International Society for Presence Research. (2000). Presence defined. Diakses melalui https://ispr.info/about-presence-2/about-presence/ (on 25 Januari 2019)

Jiang, B., Chang, C.-Y., & Sullivan, W. C. (2014). A dose of nature: Tree cover, stress reduction, and gender differences. Landscape and Urban Planning, 132, 26–36. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.08.005

Kalat, J. W., & Shiota, M. N. (2011). Emotion (2nd. edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.

Kotlyar, M., Donahue, C., Thuras, P., Kushner, M. G., O’Gorman, N., Smith, E. A., & Adson, D. E. (2008). Physiological response to a speech stressor presented in a virtual reality environment. Psychophysiology, 45(6), 1034–1037. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2008.00690.x

Krijn, M., Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Olafsson, R. P., & Biemond, R. (2004). Virtual reality exposure therapy of anxiety disorders: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 24(3), 259–281. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2004.04.001

Li, Q., & World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (Ed.). (2008). Advances on applied computer & applied computational science: Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS International Conference on Applied Computer & Applied Computational Science (ACACOS ’08): Hangzhou, China, April 6 - 8, 2008. Athen: WSEAS Press.

Mandler, G., Mandler, J. M., & Uviller, E. T. (1958). Autonomic feedback: The perception of autonomic activity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 56(3), 367-373. doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0048083

Mühlberger, A., Herrmann, M. J., Wiedemann, G., Ellgring, H., & Pauli, P. (2001). Repeated exposure of flight phobics to flights in virtual reality. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39(9), 1033–1050. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(00)00076-0

Parsons, T. D., & Rizzo, A. A. (2008). Affective outcomes of virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety and specific phobias: A meta-analysis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 39(3), 250–261. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2007.07.007

Ramdhani, N., Akpewila, F., Faizah, M. & Resibisma, B. (2019). It’s so real: Psychophysiological reaction towards virtual reality exposure. 2019 5th International Conference on Science and Technology (ICST),  1, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICST47872.2019.9166212

Rosa, P. J., Morais, D., Gamito, P., Oliveira, J., & Saraiva, T. (2016). The immersive virtual reality experience: A typology of users revealed through multiple correspondence analysis combined with cluster analysis technique. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 19(3), 209–216. doi: https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2015.0130

Rothbaum, B. O., Hodges, L. F., Kooper, R., Opdyke, D., Williford, J. S., & North, M. (1995). Virtual reality graded exposure in the treatment of acrophobia: A case report. Behavior Therapy, 26(3), 547–554. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80100-5

Sanchez-Vives, M.V. & Slater, M.. (2005). From presence to consciousness through virtual reality. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 332-339. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn1651

Seinfeld, S., Bergstrom, I., Pomes, A., Arroyo-Palacios, J., Vico, F., Slater, M., & Sanchez-Vives, M. V. (2016). Influence of music on anxiety induced by fear of heights in virtual reality. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1-12. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01969

Slater, M., Lotto, B., Arnold, M. M., & Sanchez-Vives, M. V. (2009). How we experience immersive virtual environments: The concept of presence and its measurement. Anuario de Psicología, 40(2), 193-210.

Suyanto, E. M., Angkasa, D., Turaga, H., & Sutoyo, R. (2017). Overcome acrophobia with the help of virtual reality and kinect technology. Procedia Computer Science, 116, 476–483. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2017.10.062

Toast. (2017). Richie’s Plank Experience. Diakses dari https://store.steampowered.com/app/517160/Richies_Plank_Experience/ (pada 24 Februari 2019)

Weir, K. (2018). Virtual reality expands its reach. Monitor on Psychology, 49(2), 52–58. Diakses melalui https://www.apa.org/monitor/2018/02/virtual-reality

Wiederhold, B. K., Jang, D. P., Kaneda, M., Cabral, I.,…., Kim, S. I. (2001). An investigation into physiological responses in virtual environments: An objective measurement of presence. Dalam G. Riva & C. Galimberti (Eds), Towards cyberpsychology: Mind, cognitions and society in the internet age (pp. 175–184). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Witmer, B. G., & Singer, M. J. (1998). Measuring presence in virtual environments: A presence questionnaire. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7(3), 225–240. doi: https://doi.org/10.1162/105474698565686


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Gadjah Mada Journal of Professional Psychology (GamaJPP)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.