The Impact of Social Conditions and Regional Differences on Urban Farmer Household Income in Makassar City

Diah Retno Dwi Hastuti(1*), Abd. Rahim(2)

(1) Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Makassar
(2) Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Makassar
(*) Corresponding Author


The existence of erratic seasonal changes and the increasingly narrow area of agricultural land has caused changes in agricultural commodities production, which have decreased in Makassar City. The decrease in production also causes a decrease in farm income, thus affecting farmers' household income. This research was conducted in Makassar City, Indonesia, aims to estimate the impact of social and regional differences on household income. An econometric model approach with a qualitative independent variable regression estimation method is used in this analysis. We used the explanatory method with sample areas in the sub-districts of Tamalate, Biringkanaya, Manggala, and Tamalanrea as centers of food commodity production in Makassar City. Based on the time dimension using cross-sectional data. The sample of research respondents purposively were 165 farmers. The results showed that farmers' household income in Makassar City came from the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors. The social variables (wife's education and farmer group) and regional differences significantly affect farmers' household income. In contrast, a farmer's age and household size as a social variable have no significant effect. The involvement of agricultural households in urban areas will significantly support food availability, even though farming families consume more products than sell them. Therefore, the application of technology and innovation as well as farmer regeneration can increase agricultural production and impact the household economy. In addition, food availability can overcome food insecurity and security towards sustainable urban agriculture.



farmer household income, farmer social condition, urban farmers

Full Text:



Abdoellah, O. S., Suparman, Y., Safitri, K. I., Mubarak, A. Z., Milani, M., Margareth, & Surya, L. (2023). Between food fulfillment and income: Can urban agriculture contribute to both? Geography and Sustainability, 4(2), 127–137.

Abokyi, E., Strijker, D., Asiedu, K. F., & Daams, M. N. (2020). The impact of output price support on smallholder farmers’ income: evidence from maize farmers in Ghana. Heliyon, 6(9), e05013.

Addison, M., Ohene-Yankyera, K., & Aidoo, R. (2020). Quantifying the impact of agricultural technology usage on intra-household time allocation: Empirical evidence from rice farmers in Ghana. Technology in Society, 63, 101434.

Amfo, B., & Ali, E. B. (2020). Climate change coping and adaptation strategies: How do cocoa farmers in Ghana diversify farm income? Forest Policy and Economics, 119, 102265.

Ammatillah, C. S., Tinaprilla, N., & Burhanudin. (2018). Peran Pertanian Perkotaan terhadap Pendapatan Rumah Tangga Tani di DKI Jakarta. Jurnal Pengkajian Dan Pengembangan Teknologi Pertanian, 21(2), 177–187.

Ampaw, S., Nketiah-Amponsah, E., & Senadza, B. (2017). Urban Farm-Nonfarm Diversification, Household Income and Food Expenditure in Ghana. Studies in Business and Economics, 12(2), 6–19.

Anderson, C. L., Reynolds, T. W., & Gugerty, M. K. (2017). Husband and Wife Perspectives on Farm Household Decision-making Authority and Evidence on Intra-household Accord in Rural Tanzania. World Development, 90, 169–183.

Annisa, A., Saputri, B. G. D., Asmara, R., Fahriyah, F., & Hanani, N. (2022). Analysis of Household Income and Food Security of Watermelon Farmers During The Covid-19 Pandemic in Lamongan Regency. Agro Ekonomi, 33(2), 91.

Arsyad, M., Rahmadanih, Bulkis, S., Hasnah, Sulili, A., Darwis, Bustan, A., & Aswad, M. (2018). Role of joined farmer groups in enhancing production and farmers income. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 157, 012060.

Aubry, C., Ramamonjisoa, J., Dabat, M.-H., Rakotoarisoa, J., Rakotondraibe, J., & Rabeharisoa, L. (2012). Urban agriculture and land use in cities: An approach with the multi-functionality and sustainability concepts in the case of Antananarivo (Madagascar). Land Use Policy, 29(2), 429–439.

Ayambire, R. A., Amponsah, O., Peprah, C., & Takyi, S. A. (2019). A review of practices for sustaining urban and peri-urban agriculture: Implications for land use planning in rapidly urbanising Ghanaian cities. Land Use Policy, 84, 260–277.

Azadi, H., Keramati, P., Taheri, F., Rafiaani, P., Teklemariam, D., Gebrehiwot, K., Hosseininia, G., Van Passel, S., Lebailly, P., & Witlox, F. (2018). Agricultural land conversion: Reviewing drought impacts and coping strategies. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 31, 184–195.

Azunre, G. A., Amponsah, O., Peprah, C., Takyi, S. A., & Braimah, I. (2019). A review of the role of urban agriculture in the sustainable city discourse. Cities, 93, 104–119.

Baba, A. R., & Abdulai, A.-M. (2021). Determinants of Crop Diversification and Its Effects on Household Food Security in Northern Ghana. Arthaniti: Journal of Economic Theory and Practice, 20(2), 227–245.

Badan Pusat Statistik Kota Makassar. (2020). Kota Makassar dalam Angka 2020.

Badan Pusat Statistik Kota Makassar. (2021). Kota Makassar dalam Angka 2021.

Badan Pusat Statistik Sulawesi Selatan. (2023, October 7). Luas Panen Padi Menurut Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan (Ha), 2019-2021. sulsel.bps.go.Id/Indicator/53/1682/1.

Barthel, S., & Isendahl, C. (2013). Urban gardens, agriculture, and water management: Sources of resilience for long-term food security in cities. Ecological Economics, 86, 224–234.

Biddle, J. E., & Hamermesh, D. S. (2020). Income, wages and household production theory. Economics Letters, 192, 109188.

Boudet, F., MacDonald, G. K., Robinson, B. E., & Samberg, L. H. (2020). Rural-urban connectivity and agricultural land management across the Global South. Global Environmental Change, 60, 101982.

Chinh, T. T. Q., & Cuong, T. (2023). Factor Effects to Farm Household’s Income in Nari District, Bac Kan Province. OALib, 10(04), 1–12.

Cook, J., Oviatt, K., Main, D. S., Kaur, H., & Brett, J. (2015). Re-conceptualizing urban agriculture: an exploration of farming along the banks of the Yamuna River in Delhi, India. Agriculture and Human Values, 32(2), 265–279.

Crush, J., Frayne, B., & McCordic, C. (2017). Urban Agriculture and Urban Food Insecurity in Maseru, Lesotho. Journal of Food Security, 5(2), 33–42.

Diehl, J. A., Sweeney, E., Wong, B., Sia, C. S., Yao, H., & Prabhudesai, M. (2020). Feeding cities: Singapore’s approach to land use planning for urban agriculture. Global Food Security, 26, 100377.

Doernberg, A., Horn, P., Zasada, I., & Piorr, A. (2019). Urban food policies in German city regions: An overview of key players and policy instruments. Food Policy, 89, 101782.

Ecker, O. (2018). Agricultural transformation and food and nutrition security in Ghana: Does farm production diversity (still) matter for household dietary diversity? Food Policy, 79, 271–282.

Edirisinghe, J. C. (2015). Smallholder farmers’ household wealth and livelihood choices in developing countries: A Sri Lankan case study. Economic Analysis and Policy, 45, 33–38.

Eskander, S. M. S. U., Barbier, E. B., & Gilbert, B. (2018). Fishing and Nonfishing Income Decisions: The Role of Human Capital and Family Structure. Land Economics, 94(1), 114–136.

Fei, S., Ni, J., & Santini, G. (2020). Local food systems and COVID-19: an insight from China. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 162, 105022.

Fletcher, E. I., & Collins, C. M. (2020). Urban agriculture: Declining opportunity and increasing demand—How observations from London, U.K., can inform effective response, strategy and policy on a wide scale. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 55, 126823.

Galli, F., Grando, S., Adamsone-Fiskovica, A., Bjørkhaug, H., Czekaj, M., Duckett, D. G., Almaas, H., Karanikolas, P., Moreno-Pérez, O. M., Ortiz-Miranda, D., Pinto-Correia, T., Prosperi, P., Redman, M., Rivera, M., Toma, I., Sánchez-Zamora, P., Šūmane, S., Żmija, K., Żmija, D., & Brunori, G. (2020). How do small farms contribute to food and nutrition security? Linking European small farms, strategies and outcomes in territorial food systems. Global Food Security, 26, 100427.

Goodman, W., & Minner, J. (2019). Will the urban agricultural revolution be vertical and soilless? A case study of controlled environment agriculture in New York City. Land Use Policy, 83, 160–173.

Gren, Å., & Andersson, E. (2018). Being efficient and green by rethinking the urban-rural divide—Combining urban expansion and food production by integrating an ecosystem service perspective into urban planning. Sustainable Cities and Society, 40, 75–82.

Grigorescu, I., Popovici, E.-A., Damian, N., Dumitraşcu, M., Sima, M., Mitrică, B., & Mocanu, I. (2022). The resilience of sub-urban small farming in Bucharest Metropolitan Area in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Land Use Policy, 122, 106351.

Guo, G., Wen, Q., & Zhu, J. (2015). The Impact of Aging Agricultural Labor Population on Farmland Output: From the Perspective of Farmer Preferences. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 1–7.

Hallett, S., Hoagland, L., & Toner, E. (2016). Urban Agriculture: Environmental, Economic, and Social Perspectives. In Horticultural Reviews (pp. 65–120). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Hanifa, A. P., Yuniarsih, E. T., Qomariah, R., Nurmalinda, Saleh, Y., Haryati, Y., Lestari, I. P., & Lesmayati, S. (2023). Perspective Chapter: How Important is Urban Farming in Indonesia to Support Food Sovereignty? In A. Kuden & B. Imrak (Eds.), Urban Horticulture - Sustainable Gardening in Cities.

Hastuti, D. R. D., Darma, R., Salman, D., Santosa, S., Martosenjoyo, T., & Dungga, N. E. (2021). Gender preference on the quality of landscape aesthetic of urban agriculture. Journal of Socioeconomics and Development, 4(1), 57.

Hastuti, D. R. D., Darma, R., Salman, D., Santosa, S., & Rahmadanih. (2021). Regression Application On The Farmers‘ Household Consumption Expenditure Model. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT), 12(4), 593–599.

Heshmati, Maasoumi, & Wan. (2019). An Analysis of the Determinants of Household Consumption Expenditure and Poverty in India. Economies, 7(4), 96.

Jassem, S., & Rezaur Razzak, M. (2021). Entrepreneurship in Urban Jungles through High-Tech Vertical Farming. In Entrepreneurship - Contemporary Issues. IntechOpen.

Kansiime, M. K., Tambo, J. A., Mugambi, I., Bundi, M., Kara, A., & Owuor, C. (2021). COVID-19 implications on household income and food security in Kenya and Uganda: Findings from a rapid assessment. World Development, 137, 105199.

Laudia, O., Fanifosi, G. E., & Komolafe, O. D. (2017). The Contribution of Urban Agriculture to Household Food Insecurity in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria. Scientia Agriculturae, 17(2).

Li, M., Gan, C., Ma, W., & Jiang, W. (2020). Impact of cash crop cultivation on household income and migration decisions: Evidence from low-income regions in China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(10), 2571–2581.

Li, W., Wang, D., Li, Y., Zhu, Y., Wang, J., & Ma, J. (2020). A multi-faceted, location-specific assessment of land degradation threats to peri-urban agriculture at a traditional grain base in northeastern China. Journal of Environmental Management, 271, 111000.

Mariana, I. (2015). Consequences of the Investment in Education as Regards Human Capital. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, 362–370.

Mcdougall, R., Rader, R., & Kristiansen, P. (2020). Urban agriculture could provide 15% of food supply to Sydney, Australia, under expanded land use scenarios. Land Use Policy, 94, 104554.

Meetei, W. T., Saha, B., & Pal, P. (2016). Participation of women in fisheries: a study on gender issues in Manipur, India. International Journal of Bio-Resource and Stress Management, 7(4), 905–913.

Munir, A. R., Pono, M., & Sudarmono. (2017). Kajian Ekonomi Program Longgar di Makassar (Study on Economic Benefit of Longgar Program in Makassar) . Jurnal Inovasi Dan Pelayanan Publik Makassar, 1(1), 28–37.

Nagib, G., & Nakamura, A. C. (2020). Urban agriculture in the city of São Paulo: New spatial transformations and ongoing challenges to guarantee the production and consumption of healthy food. Global Food Security, 26, 100378.

Nalunga, A., Mugisha, J., Walekhwa, P., & Smith, J. (2019). The dynamics of Household labor allocation to biogas production, farm and non-farm activities in central Uganda. Renewable Energy, 142, 461–467.

Ngahdiman, I., Terano, R., Mohamed, Z., & Sharifuddin., J. (2017). Factors Affecting Urban Dwellers to Practice Urban Agriculture. International Journal of Advanced Research, 5(7), 1580–1587.

Okon, U. E., Nkeme, K. K., Essien, U. A., Solomon, E. U., & Solomon, U. U. (2018). Urban Farmers’ Willingness to Pay and Utilize Urban Waste for Agriculture in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 6(2), 50–53.

Osarfo, D., Senadza, B., & Nketiah-Amponsah, E. (2016). The Impact of Nonfarm Activities on Rural Farm Household Income and Food Security in the Upper East and Upper West Regions of Ghana. Theoretical Economics Letters, 6(3), 388–400.

Osmani, L. N. K. (2018). The Grameen Bank Experiment: Empowerment of Women through Credit. Women and Empowerment, 67–85.

Pham, T.-T.-H., & Turner, S. (2020). ‘If I want safe food I have to grow it myself’: Patterns and motivations of urban agriculture in a small city in Vietnam’s northern borderlands. Land Use Policy, 96, 104681.

Pramono, L. G., & Yuliawati, Y. Y. (2020). Peran kelompok tani terhadap pendapatan petani padi sawah di Kelurahan Kauman Kidul Kecamatan Sidorejo Kota Salatiga. Agritech: Jurnal Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, 21(2), 129.

Pribadi, D. O., & Pauleit, S. (2015). The dynamics of peri-urban agriculture during rapid urbanization of Jabodetabek Metropolitan Area. Land Use Policy, 48, 13–24.

Rahim, A., & Hastuti, D. R. D. (2018). Applied Multiple Regression Method with Exponential Functions: An Estimation of Traditional Catch Fishermen Household Income. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1028(1), 1–8.

Rahmadanih, Bulkis, S., Arsyad, M., Amrullah, A., & Viantika, N. M. (2018). Role of farmer group institutions in increasing farm production and household food security. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 157, 012062.

Rahman, S. (2017). Factors Influencing Household Income in Poor Urban Slum Settlements in Bangladesh. Journal of Poverty Alleviation and International Development, 8(2), 55–80.

Sarni, & Sidayat, M. (2020, November 7). Dampak pandemi covid 19 terhadap pendapatan petani sayuran di Kota Ternate. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Agribisnis.

Smith, G. (2015). Multiple Regression. In Essential Statistics, Regression, and Econometrics (pp. 301–337). Elsevier.

Sroka, W., Pölling, B., & Mergenthaler, M. (2019). City adjustments as the main factor of success of urban and peri-urban farms–empirical evidence from the Ruhr metropolis. NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 89, 100299.

Surya, B., Syafri, S., Hadijah, H., Baharuddin, B., Fitriyah, A. T., & Sakti, H. H. (2020). Management of Slum-Based Urban Farming and Economic Empowerment of the Community of Makassar City, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Sustainability, 12(18), 7324.

Valley, W., & Wittman, H. (2019). Beyond feeding the city: The multifunctionality of urban farming in Vancouver, BC. City, Culture and Society, 16, 36–44.

Vandercasteelen, J., Beyene, S. T., Minten, B., & Swinnen, J. (2018). Cities and agricultural transformation in Africa: Evidence from Ethiopia. World Development, 105, 383–399.

Vermeiren, K., Adiyia, B., Loopmans, M., Tumwine, F. R., & Van Rompaey, A. (2013). Will urban farming survive the growth of African cities: A case-study in Kampala (Uganda)? Land Use Policy, 35, 40–49.

Victor, K., Massawe, F. A., & Sikira, A. (2018). Contribution of Integrated Urban Agriculture to Household Income: A Case of Kinondoni Municipality, Tanzania. Journal of Agricultural Sciences – Sri Lanka, 13(3), 237.

Waglé, U. R., & Koirala, B. (2014). Welfare Economics. In Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research (pp. 7029–7032). Springer Netherlands.

Wästfelt, A., & Zhang, Q. (2018). Keeping agriculture alive next to the city – The functions of the land tenure regime nearby Gothenburg, Sweden. Land Use Policy, 78, 447–459.

Weltin, M., Zasada, I., Franke, C., Piorr, A., Raggi, M., & Viaggi, D. (2017). Analysing behavioural differences of farm households: An example of income diversification strategies based on European farm survey data. Land Use Policy, 62, 172–184.

Wossen, T., Berger, T., Haile, M. G., & Troost, C. (2018). Impacts of climate variability and food price volatility on household income and food security of farm households in East and West Africa. Agricultural Systems, 163, 7–15.

Yuan, M.-H., Chiueh, P.-T., & Lo, S.-L. (2021). Measuring Urban Food-Energy-Water Nexus Sustainability: Finding Solutions for Cities. Science of The Total Environment, 752, 141954.

Yusuf, S., Balogun, O., & Falegbe, O. (2015). Effect of Urban Household Farming on Food Security Status in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Belgrade, 60(1), 61–75.

Zella, A. Y. (2018). Effects of Urban Farming Practices on Income Poverty Reduction in Dodoma Municipality, Tanzania. Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research, 3(3), 354–367.

Zezza, A., & Tasciotti, L. (2010). Urban Agriculture, Poverty, and Food Security: Empirical Evidence from A Sample of Developing Countries. Food Policy, 35(4), 265–273.

Zhen, H., Gao, W., Jia, L., Qiao, Y., & Ju, X. (2020). Environmental and Economic Life Cycle Assessment of Alternative Greenhouse Vegetable Production Farms in Peri-urban Beijing, China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 269, 122380.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 413 | views : 286


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Agro Ekonomi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

AGRO EKONOMI ISSN 0215-8787 (print) , ISSN 2541-1616 (online)  indexed by :

sinta worldcat 


View My Stats