Identifikasi status gizi, somatotipe, asupan makan dan cairan pada atlet atletik remaja di Indonesia

Mirza Hapsari Sakti Titis Penggalih(1*), Mustika Cahya Nirmala Dewinta(2), Kurnia Mar'atus Solichah(3), Diana Pratiwi(4), Ibtidau Niamilah(5), Almira Nadia(6), Marina Dyah Kusumawati(7)

(1) Departemen Gizi Kesehatan, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) FIRST Sports Nutrition Consulting, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) FIRST Sports Nutrition Consulting, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(4) FIRST Sports Nutrition Consulting Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(5) FIRST Sports Nutrition Consulting, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(6) FIRST Sports Nutrition Consulting, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(7) Kementerian Pemuda dan Olahraga Republik Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Athletes’ nutrition status, somatotype, and adequate dietary intake are strongly related to their sport performance. Examining those markers in adolescent age is essential in order to develop the optimum physical characteristics for the future. This study was conducted to identify the nutrition status based on anthropometry value, somatotype, food and fluid intake of youth athletic athletes in Indonesia. Descriptive quantitative design was used in this study. Subjects participated in the study were 25 youth athletic athletes from Students Education and Training Program (Program Pembinaan dan Pelatihan Pelajar) in Yogyakarta and Aceh, and School of Sports (Sekolah Keolahragaan) Ragunan, Jakarta Selatan. Anthropometry measurement consists of body weight, height, body fat percentage, and somatotype. Nutrition status was identified according to BMI/age and height/age. Food and fluid intake were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall interview and semi quantitative fluid frequency questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed and the result was presented in mean and standard deviation (SD). BMI/ age values in male and female athletes were -2 SD ≤ Z ≤ +1 SD (normal) and +1 SD < Z ≤ +2 SD (overweight), respectively. Height/age value for both gender was normal in -2 SD ≤ Z ≤ +2 SD. Percentage of body fat ranged in 12-16% for males and 18-28% for females. Somatotype category for males was ectomorphic mesomorph (2.3-5.0-3.3) and endomorphic mesomorph (4.4-5.6-2.0) for females. Fulfillment of energy and carbohydrate was found inadequate (< 80%), whereas fat intake was found excess (> 110%). Total fluid intake was ranged from 2700 ml to 5800 ml per day. Overweight nutrition status was still found in female
athletes. Ideal somatotype was found only in male athletes. Excessive percentage of body fat was detected in both gender. Total energy, macro nutrients, micro nutrients, and fluid intake were inadequate compared to dietary recommendation.


nutrition status; somatotyp; dietary intake; athletic

Full Text:



  1. Flatt AA, Esco MR. Endurance performance relates to resting heart rate and its variability: A case study of a collegiate male cross-country athlete. J Aust Strength Condit. 2014;22:39-45.
  2. Utami D. Peran fisiologi dalam meningkatkan prestasi olahraga Indonesia menuju SEA Games. J. Olahraga Prestasi. 2015;11:52-63
  3. Penggalih MHST, Juffrie M, Sudargo T, Sofro ZMS. Correlation between dietary intake with anthropometry profile on youth football athlete in Indonesia. Asian J Clin Nutr. 2017;9:9-16.
  4. Yadav KR. A Study anthropometric measurement, body composition and somatotyping of high jump and shot put athletes. International Journal of Physical Education. 2014;7(2):67-70.
  5. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor: 1995/MENKES/SK/XII/2010 tentang Standar Antropometri Penilaian Status Gizi Anak. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Bina Gizi dan Kesehatan Ibu dan Anak, Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 1995.
  6. Carter JEL. The Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype. San Diego, CA, USA: San Diego State University; 2002.
  7. Underhay C, Ridder JH, Amusa L, Toriola A, Agbonjinmi A, Adeogun J. Physique characteristics of world-class African long-distance runners. AJPHERD. 2005;11(1):6-16.
  8. Abraham B. Relationship of somatotypes components of selected psychological variables and fitness status of sprinters. Review of Research. 2012;1(10):1-4.
  9. Duquet W, Carter JE Lindsay. In: Eston R, Reilly T. (Ed). Kinanthropometry and exercise physiology laboratory manual: Anthropometry. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge; 2009. Chapter 2.
  10. Ackland TR, Lohman TG, Sundgot-Borgen J, Maughan RJ, Meyer NL, Stewart AD. Current status of body composition assessment in sport: Review and position. Sports Med. 2012;42(3):227-49.
  11. Rogol AD, Clark AP, Roemmich JN. Growth and pubertal development in children and adolescents: effects of diet and physical activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(2 Suppl):5218S-8S.
  12. Burke L, Cox G. The complete guide to food for sport performance peak nutrition for your sport. 3rd ed. Crown Nest Australia: Allen & Unwin; 2010. 303. p. 303.
  13. Dave P, Subhedar R, Mishra P, Sharma D. Body composition parameter changes among young male and female competitive swimmers and non-swimmers. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016; 2015;5(1).
  14. William MH. Nutrition for health, fitness and sport. 10th ed.. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Education; 2013. 688 p.
  15. Carassco L, Pradas F, Martinez A. Somatoype and body composition of young top-level table tennis players. International Journal of Table Tennis Science. 2010;6:175-177.
  16. Shepard RJ, Astrand P-O. La resistencia en el deporte. Barcelona: Paidotribo; 1998.
  17. Cotugna N, Vickery CE, McBee S. Sports nutrition for young athletes. J Sch Nurs. 2005;21(6): 323-8.
  18. Sawka MN, Louise MB, Eichner ER, Maughan RJ, Montain SJ, Stachenfeld NS. American college of sports medicine position stand: Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(2):377-90.
  19. Wesley J. Sports hydration: ’07: Endurance sports, rehydration, cerebral edema and death. New York: Northeastern Association of Forensic Scientists; 2006.
  20. Greenwood M, Kalman DS, Antonio J, eds. Nutritional supplements in sports and exercise. New Jersey: Human Press; 2008. Chapter Nutritional supplements to enhance recovery.
  21. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 75 Tahun 2013: Tabel angka kecukupan gizi (AKG) bagi bangsa Indonesia. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2013.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 5026 | views : 7386


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Community Empowerment for Health

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.