Kadar glukosa darah dan tekanan darah pada penduduk pedesaan dan perkotaan di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

https://doi.org/10.22146/jcoemph.39569

Tasmini Tasmini(1*), Arta Farmawati(2), Sunarti Sunarti(3), Pramudji Hastuti(4), Ahmad Hamim Sadewa(5), Prasetyastuti Prasetyastuti(6), Ngadikun Ngadikun(7)

(1) Departemen Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) Departemen Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Departemen Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(4) Departemen Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(5) Departemen Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(6) Departemen Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(7) Departemen Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK Sebagian besar penduduk di daerah pedesaan bertaraf ekonomi menengah ke bawah, memiliki keterbatasan akses informasi, dan memiliki mata pencaharian berbeda dibanding penduduk kota. Bantar Kulon merupakan daerah pedesaan dan Kronggahan adalah daerah perkotaan di Yogyakarta. Mengingat terjadinya pergeseran pola penyakit dari penyakit menular ke penyakit tidak menular serta adanya pengaruh lingkungan dan gaya hidup terhadap terjadinya penyakit degeneratif, dilakukan pengkajian mengenai faktor risiko sindroma metabolik di dua daerah tersebut. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah ada perbedaan kadar glukosa darah puasa (GDP) dan tekanan darah (TD), serta keluhan/ penyakit utama pada penduduk di daerah pedesaan dan perkotaan. Sebanyak 71 orang dari Bantar Kulon dan 91 orang dari Kronggahan diperiksa kadar GDP-nya menggunakan GCU Multi-Function Monitoring System (EasyTouch®). Tekanan darah diperiksa dengan sphygmomanometer raksa dan otomatis. Kadar GDP dan TD pada subjek dari kedua lokasi ditampilkan dalam bentuk deskriptif berdasarkan cut-off (GDP: ≥ 100 mg/dL; TD: ≥
140/90 mmHg). Uji t atau Mann Whitney U dilakukan untuk mengetahui perbedaaan nilai variabel antara kedua lokasi. Hasil dinyatakan berbeda bermakna jika p < 0,05. Data keluhan penyakit utama ditampilkan secara deskriptif. Tidak ada perbedaan kadar GDP antara desa dan kota (p = 0,385). Persentase subjek yang memiliki GDP ≥ 100 mg/dL lebih banyak di desa dibanding di kota (42,3% vs 26,4%). Persentase hipertensi lebih tinggi di kota dibanding di desa (50,5% vs 33,8%). Berdasarkan wawancara, keluhan/ penyakit utama terbanyak pada kedua wilayah adalah hipertensi sebanyak 23 orang (32,4%) di desa dan 30 orang (33,0%) di kota. Kadar GDP di atas normal lebih banyak ditemukan di desa sedangkan hipertensi lebih banyak ditemukan di kota. Keluhan/ penyakit utama di kedua wilayah adalah hipertensi.

 

KATA KUNCI kadar glukosa darah; penyakit metabolik; hipertensi; pedesaan; perkotaan


ABSTRACT Most people living in rural areas are from lower to middle income class, have limited access to information, and have different occupations compared to those in urban areas. In Yogyakarta, Bantar Kulon is a rural area, while Kronggahan is an urban area. Currently, the pattern of disease is shifting from infectious diseases to non-communicable diseases with environment and lifestyle factors as determinants. Thus, it is necessary to study the trends of risk factors for metabolic syndrome in both areas. This study aimed to seek the difference of fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure (BP), and major complaints/illness between rural and urban areas. Seventy one people from Bantar Kulon and 91 people from Kronggahan were examined for FBG levels using GCU Multi-Function Monitoring System (EasyTouch®). Blood pressures were checked using sphygmomanometer. Levels of FBG and BP were presented as frequencies based on cut-offs (FBG: ≥ 100mg/dL; BP: ≥ 140/90 mmHg). T-test or Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the difference of variables between both areas. Results were significantly different if p < 0.05. Chief complaint ilness data were displayed descriptively. There was no difference in FBG level between rural and urban areas (p = 0.385). The percentage of subjects with FBG ≥ 100 mg / dL was higher in Bantar Kulon than in
Kronggahan (42.3% vs 26.4%). Percentage of hypertension was higher in urban than rural areas (50.5% vs. 33.8%). Based on interviews, the chief complaint/ illness in both areas was hypertension. The number of subjects who were diagnosed with hypertension were 23 (32.4%) and 30 (33.0%) from Bantar Kulon and Kronggahan respectively. Impaired fasting glucose was more common in rural area while hypertension is more common in urban area. The chief complaint /illness in both regions is hypertension.

KEYWORDS blood glucose; metabolic syndrome; hypertension; rural area; urban area


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References

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jcoemph.39569

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